Emotional disorders and mental imagery

Emotional disorders and mental imagery

Programme Leader : Emily Holmes

Even the best treatments in mental health need improvement and many areas lack effective interventions. Cognitive science offers methods to develop new and more effective interventions via increasing our understanding of basic psychological processes. One relatively neglected area concerns “mental imagery” (e.g. ‘seeing in the mind’s eye’, ‘hearing in the mind’s ear’), with psychological therapies tending to focus on verbal language. However, mental imagery is implicated in many psychological disorders and in fact has a more powerful impact on emotion than its verbal counterpart (thinking in words). Mental imagery therefore presents exciting opportunities for transdiagnostic mental health treatment innovation. Mental imagery is also fascinating in its own right in terms of better understanding one of various shapes human thinking can take.

The broad aims of our research are:

  • To use cognitive science to investigate the mechanisms underlying psychological disorders, with a particular focus on mental imagery.
  • To use findings from this basic research to develop more focussed and effective psychological interventions.
  • To develop innovative methods to target key cognitive processes when these become problematic in psychological disorders whether via face-to-face therapy (e.g. cognitive behaviour therapy), computers (e.g. cognitive bias modification), or simple cognitive tasks (e.g. working memory interference).

Our research takes an interdisciplinary approach including psychology (basic and clinical) and psychiatry, cognitive science and neuroscience. We investigate psychological processes along the continuum of experience from wellbeing to distress. There is a clinical focus on three areas: Psychological Trauma, Depression, and Bipolar Disorder (commonly called manic-depression).

Projects

Psychological trauma and involuntary mental images

We focus on a cardinal symptom that can occur after trauma: intrusive memories of that event. Intrusive images are a transdiagnostic target, distressing in their own right, and also part of several mental health disorders (e.g. PTSD, depression, complicated grief).

Although there are successful psychological treatments for full-blown post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we lack empirically-supported preventative interventions to help in the immediate aftermath of trauma. This means we have little to offer people until a month after they have experienced a bombing, rape or car crash even though we know a clinically significant number will go on to develop PTSD symptoms such as intrusive memories. An aim of this research is to develop an early preventative intervention that could be administered soon after a traumatic event to protect against later post-traumatic stress symptoms (intrusive memories). To do this we examine the properties of intrusive memories, and how to modify them, in the laboratory. We will continue this research by investigating the cognitive mechanisms that help or hinder intrusive memory development via experimental studies. This will be further aided by studying the neural processes involved in intrusive memory formation via brain imaging techniques. We aim to translate this research to a real-life clinical setting, investigating whether a simple cognitive task in the Emergency Department can reduce the build-up of flashbacks after a road traffic accident. We are excited to be at the point where insights from cognitive science may promise a new direction for intervention innovation. A key area of the future will be techniques that are widely disseminable, such as via smartphones, to help reduce the frequency of distressing intrusive memories of traumatic events.

Key Publications re. Psychological Trauma

James, E. L., Bonsall, M. B., Hoppitt, L., Tunbridge, E. M., Geddes, J. R., Milton, A. L., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Computer game play reduces intrusive memories of experimental trauma via reconsolidation update mechanisms. Psychological Science, 26(8), 1201-2015. doi: 10.1177/0956797615583071 (view article). Materials and key data for this publication can be retrieved from the Open Science Framework here

Clark, I. A., Holmes, E. A. Woolrich, M. W. & Mackay, C. E. (2016) Intrusive memories to traumatic footage: The neural basis of their encoding and involuntary recall. Psychological Medicine, 46(3), 505-518. doi: 0.1017/S0033291715002007 (view article)

Bourne, C., Mackay, C. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). The neural basis of flashback formation: the impact of viewing trauma. Psychological Medicine, 43(17), 1521-1533. doi: 10.1017/S0033291712002358. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., James, E. L., Coode-Bate, T., & Deeprose, C. (2009). Can Playing the Computer Game ‘Tetris’ Reduce the Build-up of Flashbacks for Trauma?’ A Proposal from Cognitive Science. PLoS ONE, 4(1), e4153. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004153. (view article)

James, E. L., Lau-Zhu, A., Clark, I. A., Visser, R. M., Hagenaars, M. A., & Holmes, E. A. (in press) The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma: intrusive memories and beyond. Clinical Psychology Review. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2016.04.010. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., & Bourne, C. (2008). Inducing and modulating intrusive emotional memories: A review of the trauma film paradigm. Acta Psychologica, 127(3), 553-566. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2007.11.002. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., Brewin, C. R., & Hennessy, R. G. (2004). Trauma films, information processing, and intrusive memory development. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133(1), 3-22.  doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.133.1.3. (view article)

Relevant Publications re. Psychological Trauma [for a complete list of all publications by the Emotional Disorders and Mental Imagery group click the following here]

James, E. L., Lau-Zhu, A., Tickle, H., Horsch, A., & Holmes, E. A. (in press) Playing the computer game Tetris prior to viewing traumatic film material and subsequent intrusive memories: examining proactive interference. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry: special issue. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.11.004. (view article)

James, E. L., Lau-Zhu, A., Clark, I. A., Visser, R. M., Hagenaars, M. A., & Holmes, E. A. (in press) The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma: intrusive memories and beyond. Clinical Psychology Review. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2016.04.010. (view article)

Clark, I. A., Holmes, E. A. Woolrich, M. W. & Mackay, C. E. (2016) Intrusive memories to traumatic footage: The neural basis of their encoding and involuntary recall. Psychological Medicine, 46(3), 505-518. doi: 0.1017/S0033291715002007 (view article)

James, E. L., Bonsall, M. B., Hoppitt, L., Tunbridge, E. M., Geddes, J. R., Milton, A. L., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Computer game play reduces intrusive memories of experimental trauma via reconsolidation update mechanisms. Psychological Science, 26(8), 1201-2015. doi: 10.1177/0956797615583071. (view article)

Porcheret, K., Holmes, E. A., Goodwin, G. M., Foster, R. G., & Wulff, K. (2015). Psychological impact of an analogue traumatic event reduced by sleep deprivation. Sleep, 38(7), 1017-1025. doi: 10.5665/sleep.4802. (view article)

Clark, I. A., Mackay, C. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Low emotional response to traumatic footage is associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks: An individual participant data meta-analysis of 16 trauma film paradigm experiments. Cognition and Emotion, 29(4), 702-713. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2014.926861. (view article)

Clark, I. A., Niehaus, K. E., Duff, E. P., Di Simplicio, M. C., Clifford, G, D., Smith, S. M., Mackay, C. E., Woolrich, M. W. & Holmes, E. A. (2014). First steps in using machine learning on fMRI data to predict intrusive memories of traumatic film footage. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 62, 37–46. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2014.07.010. (view article)

Reiser, E. M., Weiss, E. M., Schulter, G., Holmes, E. A., Fink, A., & Papousek, I. (2014). Prefrontal-posterior coupling while observing the suffering of other people, and the development of intrusive memories. Psychophysiology, 51(6), 546–555. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12197. (view article)

Malik, A., Goodwin, G. M., Hoppitt, L., & Holmes, E. A. (2014). Hypomanic experience in young adults confers vulnerability to intrusive imagery after experimental trauma: Relevance for bipolar disorder. Clinical Psychological Science, 2(6), 675-684. doi: 10.1177/2167702614527433. (view article)

Papousek, I., Reiser, E. M., Schulter, G., Fink, A., Holmes, E. A., Niederstatter, H., Hagl, S., Parson, W. & Weiss, E. M. (2013). Serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) and electrocortical responses indicating the sensitivity to negative emotional cues. Emotion, 13(6), 1173-1181. doi: 10.1037/a0033997. (view article)

Bourne, C., Mackay, C. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). The neural basis of flashback formation: the impact of viewing trauma. Psychological Medicine, 43(17), 1521-1533. doi: 10.1017/S0033291712002358. (view article)

Woud, M. L., Postma, P., Holmes, E. A., & Mackintosh, B. (2013). Reducing analogue trauma symptoms by computerized reappraisal training – Considering a cognitive prophlaxis? Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44(3), 312-315. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2013.01.003. (view article)

Clark, I. A., Mackay, C. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). Positive involuntary autobiographical memories: You first have to live them. Consciousness and Cognition, 22(2), 402-406. doi. 10.1016/j.concog.2013.01.008. (view article)

Woud, M. L., Holmes, E. A., Postma, P., Dalgleish, T., & Mackintosh, B. (2012) Ameliorating intrusive memories of distressing experiences using computerized reappraisal training. Emotion, 12(4), 778-784. doi: 10.1037/a0024992. (view article)

Davies, C., Malik, A., Pictet, A., Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Intrusive mental images after a positive film are dampened by a visuospatial task: Unhelpful in depression but helpful in mania? Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 19(4), 341-351.  doi: 10.1002/cpp.1800. (view article)

Hagenaars, M. A., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Mental Imagery in Psychopathology: Another Step. Editorial for the special issue on Mental Imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3(2), 121-126. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., James, E. L., Blackwell, S. E. & Hales, S. (2011). “They flash upon that inward eye” The Psychologist, 24(5), 340-343. (view article)

Deeprose, C., Zhang, S., Dejong, H, Dalgleish, T., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Imagery in the aftermath of viewing a traumatic film: Using cognitive tasks to modulate the development of involuntary memory. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43(2), 758-764. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.10.008. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., James, E. L., Kilford, E. J., & Deeprose, C. (2010). Key steps in developing a cognitive vaccine against traumatic flashbacks: visuospatial Tetris versus verbal Pub Quiz. PLoS ONE. 5(11), e13706. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.001370658. (view article)

Brown, R. J., Danquah, A. N., Miles, E., Holmes, E.A, & Poliakoff, E. (2010). Attention to the body in nonclinical somatoform dissociation depends on emotional state. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 69(3), 249-257. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.04.010. (view article)

Bourne, C., Frasquilho, F., Roth, A. D., & Holmes, E. A. (2010). Is it mere distraction? Peri-traumatic verbal tasks can increase analogue flashbacks. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41(3), 316-324. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2010.03.001. (view article)

Hagenaars, M. A., Brewin, C. R., van Minnen, A., Holmes, E. A., & Hoogduin, K. A. L. (2010). Intrusive images and intrusive thoughts as different phenomena: Two experimental studies. Memory, 18(1), 76-84. doi: 10.1080/09658210903476522. (view article)

Krans, J., Näring, G., Holmes, E. A., & Becker, E. S. (2010). Motion effects on intrusion development. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 11(1), 73-82. doi: 10.1080/15299730903318483

Holmes, E. A., James, E. L., Coode-Bate, T., & Deeprose, C. (2009). Can Playing the Computer Game ‘Tetris’ Reduce the Build-up of Flashbacks for Trauma?’ A Proposal from Cognitive Science. PLoS ONE, 4(1), e4153. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004153. (view article)

Krans, J., Näring, G., Holmes, E. A., & Becker, E. S. (2009). ‘I see what you are saying’: Intrusive images from listening to a traumatic verbal report. Journal of Affective Disorder, 24 (1), 134-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.09.009. (view article)

Krans, J., Naring, G., Becker, E. S., & Holmes, E. A. (2009). Intrusive Trauma Memory: A review and functional analysis. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23(8), 1076-1088. doi: 10.1002/acp.1611. (view article)

Lilley, S. A., Andrade, J., Turpin, G., Sabin-Farrell, R., & Holmes, E. A. (2009). Visuospatial working memory interference with recollections of trauma. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48(3), 309-321. doi: 10.1348/014466508X398943

Krans, J., Naring, G., Holmes, E. A., & Becker, E. S. (2009). Tell me more: Can a memory test reduce analogue traumatic intrusions? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(5), 426-430. (view article)

Grey, N., & Holmes, E. A. (2008). “Hotspots” in trauma memories in the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder: A replication. Memory, 16 (7), 788-796. doi: 10.1080/09658210802266446

Steel, C., Mahmood, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2008). Positive schizotypy and trait dissociation as vulnerability factors for post-traumatic distress. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47(2), 245-249. doi: 10.1348/014466507X255276. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., & Bourne, C. (2008). Inducing and modulating intrusive emotional memories: A review of the trauma film paradigm. Acta Psychologica, 127(3), 553-566. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2007.11.002. (view article)

Hagenaars, M. A., van Minnen, A., Holmes, E. A., Brewin, C. R., & Hoogduin, K. A. L. (2008). The effect of hypnotically induced somatoform dissociation on the development of intrusions after an aversive film. Cognition & Emotion, 22(5), 944-963. doi: 10.1080/02699930701575151

Hirsch, C. R., & Holmes, E. A. (2007). Mental imagery in anxiety disorders. Psychiatry, 6(4), 161-165. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., Creswell, C., & O’Connor, T. G. (2007). Posttraumatic stress symptoms in London school children following September 11th 2001: An exploratory investigation of peri-traumatic reactions and intrusive imagery. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38(4), 474-490. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., Oakley, D. A., Stuart, A. D., & Brewin, C. R. (2006). Investigating peri-traumatic dissociation using hypnosis during a traumatic film. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 7(4), 91-113. doi: 10.1300/J229v07n04_06

Stuart, A. D. P., Holmes, E. A., & Brewin, C. R. (2006). The influence of a visuospatial grounding task on intrusive images of a traumatic film. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(4), 611-619. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., Brown, R. J., Mansell, W., Fearon, R. P., Hunter, E. C. M., Frasquilho, F., et al. (2005). Are there two qualitatively distinct forms of dissociation? A review and some clinical implications. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(1), 1-23. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., Grey, N., & Young, K. A. D. (2005). Intrusive images and “hotspots” of trauma memories in posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 36(1), 3-17. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2004.11.002. (view article)

Steel, C., Fowler, D., & Holmes, E. A. (2005). Trauma-Related Intrusions and Psychosis: An information processing account. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 33(2), 139-152.  doi: 0.1017/S1352465804001924

Holmes, E. A., Brewin, C. R., & Hennessy, R. G. (2004). Trauma films, information processing, and intrusive memory development. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133(1), 3-22.  doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.133.1.3

Holmes, E. A. (2004). Intrusive, emotional mental imagery and trauma: Experimental and clinical clues. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 23(2&3), 147-154. doi: 10.2190/HJG1-7UPH-B3K0-P9H5

Holmes, E. A., & Hackmann, A. (2004). A healthy imagination? Editorial for the special issue of Memory: Mental imagery in psychopathology. Memory, 12(4), 387-388. doi: 10.1080/09658210444000124

Hackmann, A., & Holmes, E. A. (2004). Reflecting on imagery: A clinical perspective and overview of the special issue of Memory on mental imagery and memory in psychopathology. Memory, 12(4), 389-402. doi: 10.1080/09658210444000133

Holmes, E. A., & Steel, C. (2004). Schizotypy: A vulnerability factor for traumatic intrusions. Journal of Nervous &Mental Disease, 192(1), 28-34.

Brewin, C. R., & Holmes, E. A. (2003). Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 23(3), 339-376. (view article)

Brewin, C. R., & Holmes, E. A. (2003). Psychology and cognitive processing in PTSD. Psychiatry, 2(6), 28-31

Grey, N., Young, K., & Holmes, E. A. (2002). Cognitive restructuring within reliving: A treatment for peritraumatic emotional “hotspots” in posttraumatic stress disorder. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy, 30(1), 37-56. (view article)

Grey, N., Holmes, E., & Brewin, C. R. (2001). Peritraumatic emotional “hot spots” in memory. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29(3), 357-362. doi10.1017/S1352465801003095

Depressed mood, resilience and training positive imagery

When people with depression think about the future, they often struggle to imagine anything positive happening to themselves, or even that anything other than negative events lie ahead. This in part reflects an underlying deficit in positive future imagery, which we have found to characterise both depressed mood and major depression. If someone is not able to envision positive or benign possibilities in their future then this is likely to fuel a sense of pessimism and low mood. The negative thinking styles, or cognitive biases, that characterise depression have been a treatment target in both CBT (cognitive behaviour therapy) and medication (e.g. antidepressants), since these styles are believed to drive depressive symptoms. However, even the best talking therapies such as CBT still require improvement and can be difficult to access, while many individuals choose not to take medication. Cognitive bias modification techniques (CBM) are rapidly evolving computerized techniques stemming from experimental research on cognitive biases and emotion. They are designed to help ‘re-train’ specific, unhelpful biases in thinking.

We are particularly interested in promoting positive future imagery via CBM when this could be diminished in depression. ‘Imagery CBM’ is being developed in our lab via a stepped series of cognitive science experiments. Such experiments investigate relevant psychological processes for treatment innovation, including imagery, emotion and future thinking. In parallel, we are involved in clinical trials to test whether Imagery CBM could be effective as a novel internet-delivered intervention for depression. We also aim to explore its potential use in promoting cognitive health and resilience in ageing.

Key Publications re. Depressed Mood

Holmes, E. A., Blackwell, S. E., Burnett Heyes, S., Renner, F., & Raes, F. (in press) Mental imagery in depression: Phenomenology, potential mechanisms, and treatment implications. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 12(volume publication date April 2016). (view article)

Blackwell, S. E., Browning, M., Mathews, A., Pictet, A., Welch, J., Davies, J., Watson, P., Geddes, J. R. & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Positive imagery-based cognitive bias modification as a web-based treatment for depressed adults: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Psychological Science, 3(1), 91-111. doi:10.1177/2167702614560746. (view article)

Williams, A. D., Blackwell, S. E., Mackenzie, A., Holmes, E. A., & Andrews, G. (2013). Combining imagination and reason in the treatment of depression: A randomized controlled trial of internet-based cognitive bias modification and internet-CBT for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 8(5), 793-799. doi: 10.1037/a0033247. (view article)

Blackwell, S. E., Rius-Ottenheim, N., Schulte-van Maaren, Y. W. M., Carlier, I. V. E., Middelkoop, V. D., Zitman, F. G., Spinhoven, P., Holmes, E. A., & Giltay, E. J. (2013). Optimism and mental imagery: A possible cognitive marker to promote wellbeing? Psychiatry Research, 206(1), 56-61. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.09.047. (view article)

Lang, T. J., Blackwell, S. E., Harmer, C. J., Davison, P., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Cognitive bias modification using mental imagery for depression: Developing a novel computerized intervention to change negative thinking styles. European Journal of Personality, 26(2), p145-157. doi: 10.1002/per.855. (view article)

Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2010). Modifying interpretation and imagination in clinical depression: A single case series using cognitive bias modification. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(3), 338-350. doi: 0.1002/acp.1680. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., Lang, T. J., & Shah, D. M. (2009). Developing interpretation bias modification as a ‘cognitive vaccine’ for depressed mood: imagining positive events makes you feel better than thinking about them verbally. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(1), 76-88. doi: 0.1037/a0012590. (view article)

 

Relevant Publications re. Depressed Mood [for a complete list of all publications by the Emotional Disorders and Mental Imagery group click the following here]

Holmes, E. A., Blackwell, S. E., Burnett Heyes, S., Renner, F., & Raes, F. (in press) Mental imagery in depression: Phenomenology, potential mechanisms, and treatment implications. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 12(volume publication date April 2016). (view article)

Murphy, S. E., O’Donoghue, C. M., Drazich, E. H. S., Blackwell, S. E., Nobre, A. C., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Imagining a brighter future: the effect of positive imagery training on mood, prospective mental imagery and emotional bias in older adults. Psychiatry Research, 230, 36-43. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2015.07.059 (view article)

Nelis, S., Holmes, E. A., Palmieri, R., Bellelli, G., & Raes, F. (2015). Thinking back about a positive event: The impact of processing style on positive affect. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 6(3), 1-13. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00003. (view article)

Williams, A. D., O’Moore, K., Blackwell, S. E., Smith, J., Holmes, E. A., & Andrews, G. (2015).Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT): A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 178. 131-141. (view article)

Rathbone, C. J., Holmes, E. A., Murphy, S. E., & Ellis, J. A. (2015) Autobiographical memory and well-being in aging: the central role of semantic self-images. Consciousness and Cognition, 33. 422-431, doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2015.02.017. (view article)

Blackwell, S. E., Browning, M., Mathews, A., Pictet, A., Welch, J., Davies, J., Watson, P., Geddes, J. R. & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Positive imagery-based cognitive bias modification as a web-based treatment for depressed adults: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Psychological Science, 3(1), 91-111. doi:10.1177/2167702614560746. (view article)

Newby, J. M., Lang, T. J., Werner-Seidler, A., Holmes, E. A., & Moulds, M. L. (2014). Alleviating distressing intrusive memories in depression: a comparison between computerised cognitive bias modification and cognitive behavioural education. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 56(100), 60-67. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2014.03.0010005-7967/_ 2014. (view article)

Almeida, O. P., MacLeod, C., Ford, A., Grafton, B., Hirani, V., Glance, D., & Holmes, E. A. (2014). Cognitive bias modification to prevent depression (COPE): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 15(282), 1-9. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-15-282. (view article)

Fox, E., Mackintosh, B., & Holmes, E. A. (2014). Travellers’ tales in Cognitive Bias Modification research: A commentary on the Special Issue. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38(2), 239-247. doi: 10.1007/s10608-014-9604-1. (view article)

Torkan, H., Blackwell, S. E., Holmes, E. A., Kalantari, M., Neshat-Doost, H. T., Maroufi, M., & Talebi, H. (2014). Positive imagery cognitive bias modification in treatment-seeking patients with major depression in Iran: A pilot study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38, 132-145. doi: 10.1007/s10608-014-9598-8. (view article)

Moritz, S., Hormann, C. C., Schroder, J., Berger, T., Jacob, G. A., Meyer, B., Holmes, E. A., Spath, C., Hautzinger, M., Lutz, W. & Klein, J. P. (2014). Beyond words: Sensory properties of depressive thoughts. Cognition and Emotion, 28(6), 1047-1056. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2013.868342

Notebaert, L., Chrystal, J., Clarke, P. J. F., Holmes, E. A., & MacLeod, C. (2014). When we should worry more: using Cognitive Bias Modification to drive adaptive health behaviour. PLoS ONE, 9(1), e85092. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085092. (view article)

Rohrbacher, H., Blackwell, S. E., Holmes, E. A., & Reinecke, A. (2014). Optimizing the ingredients for imagery-based interpretation bias modification for depressed mood: Is self-generation more effective than imagination alone? Journal of Affective Disorders, 152-154, 212-218. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.09.013. (view article)

Papousek, I., Reiser, E. M., Schulter, G., Fink, A., Holmes, E. A., Niederstatter, H., Hagl, S., Parson, W. & Weiss, E. M. (2013). Serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) and electrocortical responses indicating the sensitivity to negative emotional cues. Emotion, 13(6), 1173-1181. doi: 10.1037/a0033997. (view article)

Williams, A. D., Blackwell, S. E., Holmes, E. A., & Andrews, G. (2013). Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) versus control CBM and iCBT for depression: Study protocol for a parallel-group randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open, 3(e004049). doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004049. (view article)

Boettcher, J., Leek, L., Matson, L., Holmes, E. A., Browning, M., MacLeod, C., Andersson, G. & Carlbring, P. (2013). Internet-based attention modification for social anxiety: A randomised controlled comparison of training towards negative and training towards positive cues. PLoS ONE, 8(9), e71760. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071760. (view article)

Browning, M., Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). The use of cognitive bias modification and imagery in the understanding and treatment of depression. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, 14, 243–260. doi: 10.1007/7854_2012_212 [chapter]

Williams, A. D., Blackwell, S. E., Mackenzie, A., Holmes, E. A., & Andrews, G. (2013). Combining imagination and reason in the treatment of depression: A randomized controlled trial of internet-based cognitive bias modification and internet-CBT for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 8(5), 793-799. doi: 10.1037/a0033247. (view article)

Clarke, P. J. F., Nanthakumar, S., Notebaert, L., Holmes, E. A., Blackwell, S. E., & MacLeod, C. (2013). Simply imagining sunshine, lollipops and rainbows will not budge the bias: The role of ambiguity in interpretive bias modification. Cognitive Therapy and Research. doi: 10.1007/s10608-013-9564-x. (view article)

Telman, M. D., Holmes, E. A., & Lau, J.Y. F. (2013). Modifying adolescent interpretation biases through cognitive training: Effects on negative affect and stress appraisals. Journal of Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 44(5), 602-611. doi: 10.1007/s10578-013-0386-6. (view article)

Adams, S., Penton-Voak, I. S., Harmer, C. J., Holmes, E. A., & Munafò, M. R. (2013). Effects of emotion recognition training on mood among individuals with high levels of depressive symptoms: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 14(1), 161-168. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-14-161. (view article)

Nelis, S., Debeer, E, Holmes, E. A., & Raes, F. (2013). Dysphoric students show higher use of the observer perspective in their retrieval of positive versus negative autobiographical memories. Memory, 21(4), 423-430. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2012.730530. (view article)

Mathews, A., Ridgeway, V., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). Feels like the real thing: Imagery is both more realistic and emotional than verbal thought. Cognition & Emotion, 27(2), 217-229. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2012.698252. (view article)

Blackwell, S. E., Rius-Ottenheim, N., Schulte-van Maaren, Y. W. M., Carlier, I. V. E., Middelkoop, V. D., Zitman, F. G., Spinhoven, P., Holmes, E. A., & Giltay, E. J. (2013). Optimism and mental imagery: A possible cognitive marker to promote wellbeing? Psychiatry Research, 206(1), 56-61. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.09.047. (view article)

Woud, M. L., Postma, P., Holmes, E. A., & Mackintosh, B. (2013). Reducing analogue trauma symptoms by computerized reappraisal training – Considering a cognitive prophlaxis? Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44(3), 312-315. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2013.01.003. (view article)

Nelis, S., Vanbrabant, K., Holmes, E. A., & Raes, F. (2012). Greater positive affect change after mental imagery than verbal thinking in a student sample. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3, 178-188. doi: 10.5127/jep.014811

Relocation to the MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge: September 2012

Woud, M. L., Holmes, E. A., Postma, P., Dalgleish, T., & Mackintosh, B. (2012) Ameliorating intrusive memories of distressing experiences using computerized reappraisal training. Emotion, 12(4), 778-784. doi: 10.1037/a0024992

Browning, M., Holmes, E. A., Charles, M., Cowen, P. J., & Harmer, C. J. (2012). Using attentional bias modification as a cognitive vaccine against depression. Biological Psychiatry, 72(7), 572-579. doi. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.04.014

Lang, T. J., Blackwell, S. E., Harmer, C. J., Davison, P., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Cognitive bias modification using mental imagery for depression: Developing a novel computerized intervention to change negative thinking styles. European Journal of Personality, 26(2), p145-157. doi: 10.1002/per.855

MacLeod, C., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Cognitive Bias Modification: An intervention approach worth attending to. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(2) 118-120. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11111682

Crane, C., Shah, D., Barnhofer, T., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Suicidal imagery in a previously depressed community sample. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 19(1), 57-69. doi: 10.1002/cpp.741.

Holmes, E. A., James, E. L., Blackwell, S. E. & Hales, S. (2011). “They flash upon that inward eye” The Psychologist, 24(5), 340-343.

Pictet, A., Coughtrey, A. E., Mathews, A., & Holmes, E. A. (2011). Fishing for happiness: The effects of positive imagery on interpretation bias and a behavioral task. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 49(12), 885-891. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2011.10.003.

Browning, M., Grol, M., Ly, V., Goodwin, G. M., Holmes, E. A., & Harmer, C. J. (2011). Using an experimental medicine model to explore combination effects of pharmacological and cognitive interventions for depression and anxiety. Neuropsychopharmacology. 36, 2689-2697. doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.15971.

Morina, N., Deeprose, C., Pusowski, C., Schmid, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2011). Prospective mental imagery in patients with major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25(8), 1032-1037. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.06.012

Berna, C., Lang, T. J., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2011). Developing a measure of interpretation bias for depressed mood: An ambiguous scenarios test. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(3), 349-354. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.04.005

Lothmann, C., Holmes, E. A., Chan, S. W. Y., & Lau, J. (2011). Cognitive bias modification training in adolescents: effects on interpretation biases and mood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(1), 24-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02286.x

Browning, M., Holmes, E. A., Murphy, S. E., Goodwin, G. M., & Harmer, C. J. (2010). Lateral prefrontal cortex mediates the cognitive modification of attentional bias. Biological Psychiatry, 67(10), 919-925. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.10.031

Steel, C., Wykes, T., Ruddle, A., Smith, G., Shah, D. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2010). Can we harness computerized cognitive bias modification to treat anxiety in schizophrenia? A first step highlighting the role of mental imagery. Psychiatry Research, 178(3), 451-455. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2010.04.042

Browning, M., Holmes, E. A., & Harmer, C. J. (2010). The modification of attentional bias to emotional information: A review of techniques, mechanisms and relevance to emotional disorders. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 10(1), 8-20. doi: 10.3758/CABN.10.1.8

Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2010). Modifying interpretation and imagination in clinical depression: A single case series using cognitive bias modification. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(3), 338-350. doi: 0.1002/acp.1680

Holmes, E. A., Lang, T. J., & Shah, D. M. (2009). Developing interpretation bias modification as a ‘cognitive vaccine’ for depressed mood: imagining positive events makes you feel better than thinking about them verbally. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(1), 76-88. doi: 0.1037/a0012590

Lang, T. J., Moulds, M. L., & Holmes, E. A. (2009). Reducing depressive intrusions via a computerized cognitive bias modification of appraisals task: Developing a cognitive vaccine. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(2), 139-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.11.002

Holmes, E. A., Lang, T. J., & Deeprose, C. (2009). Mental imagery and emotion in treatment across disorders: Using the example of depression. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 38(suppl. 1), 21-28. doi: 10.1080/16506070902980729

Holmes, E. A., Coughtrey, A. E., & Connor, A. (2008). Looking at or through rose-tinted glasses?  Emotion, 8(6), 875-879. doi: 10.1037/a0013617

Holmes, E. A., Mathews, A., Mackintosh, B., & Dalgleish, T. (2008). The causal effect of mental imagery on emotion assessed using picture-word cues. Emotion, 8(3), 395-409. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.8.3.395

Holmes, E. A., Lang, T. J., Moulds, M. L., & Steele, A. M. (2008). Prospective and positive mental imagery deficits in dysphoria. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(8), 976-981. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.04.009

Holmes, E. A., Crane, C., Fennell, M. J. V., & Williams, J. M. G. (2007). Imagery about suicide in depression – “Flash-forwards”? Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38(4), 423-434. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2007.10.004

Holmes, E. A., Mathews, A., Dalgleish, T., & Mackintosh, B. (2006). Positive interpretation training: Effects of mental imagery versus verbal training on positive mood. Behavior Therapy, 37(3), 237-247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2006.02.002

Holmes, E. A., & Mathews, A. (2005). Mental imagery and emotion: A special relationship? Emotion, 5(4), 489-497.  doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.5.4.489

Raune, D., MacLeod, A. K., & Holmes, E. A. (2005). The simulation heuristic and visual imagery in pessimism for future negative events in anxiety. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 12(4), 313-325. doi: 10.1002/cpp.455

Bipolar disorder, mental imagery and cognitive therapy

Bipolar Disorder (also known as manic depression) can be a chronic and disabling mental health condition, and has a high suicide rate. Nevertheless, it is poorly understood and neither drug treatment nor current talking therapies have proved adequate. We apply a cognitive approach to understanding and treating bipolar disorder by investigating underlying cognitive mechanisms, and imagery in particular. A key clinical feature of Bipolar Disorder is instability of day-to-day mood. We have proposed a new theory concerning mental imagery’s role in mood instability (Holmes, Geddes, Colom & Goodwin, 2008), and this fuels both the research and treatment. Our research seeks to investigate whether abnormalities in mental imagery are specific to bipolar disorder, may be associated with mood fluctuation, have causal significance, and may have an identifiable neural signature. We hope cognitive therapy treatment procedures, informed by a mental imagery perspective, will improve mental health and quality of life in people with bipolar disorder.

Key Publications re. Bipolar Disorder

Holmes, E. A., Bonsall, M. B., Hales, S. A., Mitchell, H., Renner, F., Blackwell, S. E., Watson, P., Goodwin, G. M., Di Simplicio, M. (2016). Applications of time-series analysis to mood fluctuations in bipolar disorder to promote treatment innovation: a case series. Translational Psychiatry, 6, e720. doi: 10.1038/tp.2015.207  (view article, and view supplementary information). Key data and code book relating to this paper can be retrieved from the Open Science Framework here

Bonsall, M. B., Geddes, J. R., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Bipolar disorder dynamics: affective instabilities, relaxation oscillations and noise. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 12, 1-11. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2015.0670 (view article)

Stratford, H., Cooper, M. J., Di Simplicio, M. C., Blackwell, S. E. & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Psychological therapy for anxiety in bipolar spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Clinical Psychological Review, 35, 19-34. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2014.11.002 (view article)

Relevant Publications re. Bipolar Disorder [for a complete list of all publications by the Emotional Disorders and Mental Imagery group click the following here]

Book chapter for clinicians:

Hales, S., Blackwell, S. E., Di Simplicio, M., Iyadurai, L., Young, K., & Holmes, E. A. (2014). Imagery-based cognitive-behavioral assessment. In G. P. Brown & D. A. Clark (Eds.), Assessment in Cognitive Therapy. New York: Guilford Press. Download Microformulation Template

Peer-reviewed journal publications re. Bipolar Disorder:

Holmes, E. A., Bonsall, M. B., Hales, S. A., Mitchell, H., Renner, F., Blackwell, S. E., Watson, P., Goodwin, G. M., Di Simplicio, M. (2016). Applications of time-series analysis to mood fluctuations in bipolar disorder to promote treatment innovation: a case series. Translational Psychiatry, 6, e720. doi: 10.1038/tp.2015.207  (view article)

Ng, R. M. K., Burnett Heyes, S., McManus, F., Kennerley, H., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Bipolar risk and mental imagery susceptibility in a representative sample of Chinese adults residing in the community. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 62(1), 94-103. doi: 10.1177/0020764015597951. (view article)

Ng, R. M. K, Di Simplicio, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Mental imagery and bipolar disorders: Introducing scope for psychological treatment development? [Editorial]. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 62(2), 110-113.doi: 10.1177/0020764015615905 (view article)

Bonsall, M. B., Geddes, J. R., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Bipolar disorder dynamics: affective instabilities, relaxation oscillations and noise. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 12, 1-11. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2015.0670 (view article)

Di Simplicio, M., Holmes, E. A., & Rathbone, C. J. (2015). Self-images in the present and future: role of affect and the bipolar phenotype. Journal of Affective Disorders, 187, 97-100. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.08.042 (view article)

Stratford, H., Blackwell, S. E., Di Simplicio, M. C., Cooper, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Psychological therapy for anxiety in bipolar spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Clinical Psychological Review, 35, 19-34. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2014.11.002. (view article)

Ivins, A., Di Simplicio, M., Close, H., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2014). Mental imagery in bipolar affective disorder versus unipolar depression: Investigating cognitions at times of ‘positive’ mood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 166, 234–242. (view article)

Malik, A., Goodwin, G. M., Hoppitt, L., & Holmes, E. A. (2014). Hypomanic experience in young adults confers vulnerability to intrusive imagery after experimental trauma: Relevance for bipolar disorder. Clinical Psychological Science, 2(6), 675-684. doi: 10.1177/2167702614527433. (view article)

Mathews, A., Ridgeway, V., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). Feels like the real thing: Imagery is both more realistic and emotional than verbal thought. Cognition & Emotion, 27(2), 217-229. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2012.698252. (view article)

Burnett Hayes, S., Lau, J. Y., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). Mental imagery, emotion and psychopathology across child and adolescent development. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 5, 119-133. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2013.02.004

Pearson, D. G., Deeprose, C., Wallace-Hadrill, S. M. A., Burnett Heyes, S., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(1), 1-23. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2012.09.001

Di Simplicio, M., McInerney, J. E., Goodwin, G. M., Attenburrow, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Revealing the mind’s eye: Bringing (mental) images into psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(12), 1245-1246. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12040499

Malik, A., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Contemporary approaches to frequent mood monitoring in bipolar disorder. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3(4), 572-581. doi 10.5127/jep.014311

Davies, C., Malik, A., Pictet, A., Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Intrusive mental images after a positive film are dampened by a visuospatial task: Unhelpful in depression but helpful in mania? Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 19(4), 341-351.  doi: 10.1002/cpp.1800

Miklowitz, D. J., Price, J., Holmes, E. A., Rendell, J., Bell, S., Budge, K.., Christensen, J., Wallace, J.,  Simon, J., Goodwin, G. M. & Geddes, J. R. (2012). Facilitated Integrated Mood Management for Adults with Bipolar Disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 14(2), 185-197. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2012.00998.x.

Crane, C., Shah, D., Barnhofer, T., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Suicidal imagery in a previously depressed community sample. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 19(1), 57-69. doi: 10.1002/cpp.741.

Bonsall, M. B., Wallace-Hadrill, S. M. A., Geddes, J. R., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Non-linear time series approaches in characterising mood stability and mood instability in bipolar disorder. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,  279(1730), 916-924. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.1246.

Holmes, E. A., James, E. L., Blackwell, S. E. & Hales, S. (2011). “They flash upon that inward eye” The Psychologist, 24(5), 340-343.

Hales, S. A., Deeprose, C., Goodwin, G. M. & Holmes, E. A. (2011) Cognitions in bipolar affective disorder versus unipolar depression: Imaging suicide. Bipolar Disorders. 13(7-8), 651-661. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2011.00954.x

Morina, N., Deeprose, C., Pusowski, C., Schmid, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2011). Prospective mental imagery in patients with major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25(8), 1032-1037. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.06.012

Holmes, E. A., Deeprose, C., Fairburn, C. G., Wallace-Hadrill, S. M. A., Bonsall, M. B., Geddes, J. R., & Goodwin, G. M. (2011). Mood stability versus mood instability in bipolar disorder: a possible role for emotional mental imagery Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(10), 707-713. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2011.06.008.

Deeprose, C., Malik, A., & Holmes, E. A. (2011). Measuring intrusive prospective imagery using the Impact of Future Events Scale (IFES): Psychometric properties and relation to risk for bipolar disorder. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. 4(2), 186-197. doi: 10.1521/ijct.2011.4.2.187. http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articles/PMC3442225

Holmes, E. A., & Mathews, A. (2010). Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(3), 349–362. (view article)

Deeprose, C., & Holmes, E. A. (2010). An exploration of prospective imagery: The Impact of Future Events Scale. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38(2), 201-209. doi: 10.1017/S1352465809990683

Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2009). Bipolar anxiety. Revista de Psiquiatria Y Salud Mental, 02(02), 95-98.

Holmes, E. A., Geddes, J. R., Colom, F., & Goodwin, G. M. (2008). Mental imagery as an emotional amplifier: Application to bipolar disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(12), 1251-1258. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2008.09.005

Holmes, E. A., Lang, T. J., Moulds, M. L., & Steele, A. M. (2008). Prospective and positive mental imagery deficits in dysphoria. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(8), 976-981. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2008.04.009

Holmes, E. A., Arntz, A., & Smucker, M. R. (2007). Imagery rescripting in cognitive behaviour therapy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38(4), 297-305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2007.10.007

Hirsch, C. R., & Holmes, E. A. (2007). Mental imagery in anxiety disorders. Psychiatry, 6(4), 161-165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mppsy.2007.01.005

Holmes, E. A., Crane, C., Fennell, M. J. V., & Williams, J. M. G. (2007). Imagery about suicide in depression – “Flash-forwards”? Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38(4), 423-434. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2007.10.004

Research Team

  • Emily Holmes, Programme Leader
  • Martina Di Simplicio, Career Development Fellow (Bipolar disorder, mental imagery and cognitive therapy)

  • Ella James, Investigator Scientist (Psychological trauma and involuntary mental images)
  • Fritz Renner, Marie Curie Fellow (Depressed mood, resilience and training mental imagery)
  • Renée Visser, Marie Curie Fellow (Psychological trauma and involuntary mental images)
  • Julie Ji, PhD student (Depressed mood, resilience and training mental imagery)
  • Elizabeth Appiah-Kusi, Research Assistant (Bipolar disorder, mental imagery and cognitive therapy)
  • Lalitha Iyadurai, Post Doctoral Researcher [Oxford] (Psychological trauma and involuntary mental images)

Team away day 2016                       Team away day 2016

We are delighted to have joined the CBU in Autumn 2012. We are grateful for support from the Wellcome Trust, The Lupina Foundation, and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR).

Alumni

  • Simon Blackwell, Investigator Scientist (Depressed mood, resilience and training mental imagery)
  • Heather Mitchell,  Research Assistant (Bipolar disorder, mental imagery, and cognitive therapy and Depression mood, resilience and training mental imagery)
  • Giorgio Alfarano, Erasmus student from Padua University, Italy
  • Olivia Kukacka, Erasmus student from the Karolinska Institutet, Sweden
  • Elze Landkroon, Erasmus student from the University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Alex LauZhu, PhD student (Psychological trauma and involuntary mental images)

Publications

Publications

Authored Book (for clinicians):

Hackmann, A., Bennett-Levy, J. & Holmes, E. A. (2011). Oxford Guide to Imagery in Cognitive Therapy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978-0-19-923402-3.

Publications providing an overview of our work

Holmes, E. A., & Mathews, A. (2010). Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology Review. 30, 349–362.

Holmes, E. A., James, E. L., Blackwell, S. E. & Hales, S. (2011). “They flash upon that inward eye” The Psychologist 24(5), 2-5.

Ten key publications:

Holmes, E. A., Bonsall, M. B., Hales, S. A., Mitchell, H., Renner, F., Blackwell, S. E., Watson, P., Goodwin, G. M., Di Simplicio, M. (2016). Applications of time-series analysis to mood fluctuations in bipolar disorder to promote treatment innovation: a case series. Translational Psychiatry, 6, e720. doi: 10.1038/tp.2015.207  (view article)

James, E. L., Bonsall, M. B., Hoppitt, L., Tunbridge, E. M., Geddes, J. R., Milton, A. L., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Computer game play reduces intrusive memories of experimental trauma via reconsolidation update mechanisms. Psychological Science, 26(8), 1201-2015. doi: 10.1177/0956797615583071 (view article)

Pearson, J., Naselaris, T., Holmes, E. A., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2015). Mental imagery: functional mechanisms and clinical applications. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 19(10), 590-602. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2015.08.003. (view article)

Clark, I. A., Holmes, E. A. Woolrich, M. W. & Mackay, C. E. (2016) Intrusive memories to traumatic footage: The neural basis of their encoding and involuntary recall. Psychological Medicine, 46(3), 505-518 doi: 0.1017/S0033291715002007. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., Craske, M. G., & Graybiel, A. M. (2014). A call for mental-health science. Clinicians and neuroscientists must work together to understand and improve psychological treatments. Nature, 511, 287-289. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., & Mathews, A. (2010). Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(3), 349–362. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.01.001. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., Lang, T. J., & Shah, D. M. (2009). Developing interpretation bias modification as a ‘cognitive vaccine’ for depressed mood: Imagining positive events makes you feel better than thinking about them verbally. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(1), 76-88. doi: 10.1037/a0012590. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., James, E. L., Coode-Bate, T., & Deeprose, C. (2009). Can playing the computer game ‘Tetris’ reduce the build-up of flashbacks for trauma?’ A proposal from cognitive science. PLoS ONE, 4(1), e4153. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004153. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., & Mathews, A. (2005). Mental imagery and emotion: A special relationship? Emotion, 5(4), 489-497. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.5.4.489. (view article)

Holmes, E. A., Brewin, C. R., & Hennessy, R. G. (2004). Trauma films, information processing, and intrusive memory development. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133(1), 3-22. Doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.133.1.3. (view article)

 

For a complete list of all publications, click on the following  link