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Data Repository


This page shows all 283 data sets currently available in our Data repository

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Effects of emotion and semantic relatedness on recognition memory: Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence
Authors:
Han, M., Bingcan, L., Chunyan, G & TIBON, R.
Reference:
Psychophysiology
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8839
Abstract:
Some aspects of our memory are enhanced by emotion, whereas others can be unaffected or even hindered. Previous studies reported impaired associative memory of emotional content, an effect termed associative “emotional interference”. The current study used EEG and an associative recognition paradigm to investigate the cognitive and neural mechanisms associated with this effect. In two experiments, participants studied negative and neutral stimulus-pairs that were either semantically related or unrelated. In Experiment 1 emotions were relevant to the encoding task (valence judgment) whereas in Experiment 2 emotions were irrelevant (familiarity judgment). In a subsequent associative recognition test, EEG was recorded while participants discriminated between intact, rearranged, and new pairs. An associative emotional interference effect was observed in both experiments, but was attenuated for semantically related pairs in Experiment 1, where valence was relevant to the task. Moreover, a modulation of an early associative memory ERP component (300–550 ms) occurred for negative pairs when valence was task-relevant (Experiment 1), but for semantically related pairs when valence was irrelevant (Experiment 2). A later ERP component (550–800 ms) showed a more general pattern, and was observed in all experimental conditions. These results suggest that both valence and semantic relations can act as an organizing principle that promotes associative binding. Their ability to contribute to successful retrieval depends on specific task demands.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Damage to temporoparietal cortex is sufficient for impaired semantic control
Authors:
Thomson, H.E., Noonan, K.A., HALAI, A.D.M, Hoffman, P., Stampacchia, S., Hallam, G., RICE, , G.E., De Dois Perez, B., LAMBON RALPH, M.A., Jefferies, E.
Reference:
Cortex
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8834
Abstract:
Semantic control allows us to focus semantic activation on currently relevant aspects of knowledge, even in the face of competition or when the required information is weakly encoded. Diverse cortical regions, including left prefrontal and posterior temporal cortex, are implicated in semantic control, however; the relative contribution of these regions is unclear. For the first time, we compared semantic aphasia (SA) patients with damage restricted to temporoparietal cortex (TPC; N=8) to patients with infarcts encompassing prefrontal cortex (PF+; N=22), to determine if prefrontal lesions are necessary for semantic control deficits. These SA groups were also compared with semantic dementia (SD; N=10), characterised by degraded semantic representations. We asked whether TPC cases with semantic impairment show controlled retrieval deficits equivalent to PF+ cases or conceptual degradation similar to patients with SD. Independent of lesion location, the SA subgroups showed similarities, whereas SD patients showed a qualitatively distinct semantic impairment. Relative to SD, both TPC and PF+ SA subgroups: (1) showed few correlations in performance across tasks with differing control demands, but a strong relationship between tasks of similar difficulty; (2) exhibited attenuated effects of lexical frequency and concept familiarity, (3) showed evidence of poor semantic regulation in their verbal output – performance on picture naming was substantially improved when provided with a phonological cue, and (4) showed effects of control demands, such as retrieval difficulty, which were equivalent in severity across TPC and PF+ groups. These findings show that semantic impairment in SA is underpinned by damage to a distributed semantic control network, instantiated across anterior and posterior cortical areas.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Mapping lesion, structural disconnection, and functional disconnection to symptoms in semantic aphasia
Authors:
Souter, N.E., Wang, X., Thompson, H., Krieger‑Redwood, K., Halai, A.D., LAMBON RALPH, M.A., de Schotten, M.T., Jefferies, E
Reference:
Brain Structure and Function, 04 July 2022
Year of publication:
2022
CBU number:
8831
Abstract:
Patients with semantic aphasia have impaired control of semantic retrieval, often accompanied by executive dysfunction following left hemisphere stroke. Many but not all of these patients have damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus, important for semantic and cognitive control. Yet semantic and cognitive control networks are highly distributed, including posterior as well as anterior components. Accordingly, semantic aphasia might not only reflect local damage but also white matter structural and functional disconnection. Here we characterise the lesions and predicted patterns of structural and functional disconnection in individuals with semantic aphasia and relate these effects to semantic and executive impairment. Impaired semantic cognition was associated with infarction in distributed lefthemisphere regions, including in the left anterior inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortex. Lesions were associated with executive dysfunction within a set of adjacent but distinct left frontoparietal clusters. Performance on executive tasks was also associated with interhemispheric structural disconnection across the corpus callosum. In contrast, poor semantic cognition was associated with small left-lateralized structurally disconnected clusters, including in the left posterior temporal cortex. Little insight was gained from functional disconnection symptom mapping. These results demonstrate that while leftlateralized semantic and executive control regions are often damaged together in stroke aphasia, these deficits are associated with distinct patterns of structural disconnection, consistent with the bilateral nature of executive control and the left-lateralized yet distributed semantic control network. Data for this project are available on the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/6psqj/)
URL:
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
The cognitive and neural underpinnings of coherence in post-stroke aphasia.
Authors:
Alyahya, R.S.W., LAMBON RALPH, M.A., HALAI, A., Hoffman, P.
Reference:
Brain Communications, 14 Jun 2022, 4(3):fcac147
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8830
Abstract:
Although impaired discourse production is one of the prominent features of aphasia, only a handful of investigations have addressed the cognitive, linguistic and neural processes that support the production of coherent discourse. In this study, we investigated the cognitive and neural correlates of discourse coherence in a large mixed cohort of patients with post-stroke aphasia, including the first voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of coherence deficits. Discourse responses using different tasks were collected from 46 patients with post-stroke aphasia, including a wide range of classifications and severity levels, and 20 matched neuro-typical controls. Global coherence, defined as the degree to which utterances related to the expected topic of discourse, was estimated using a previously-validated computational linguistic approach. Coherence was then related to fundamental language and cognitive components in aphasia identified using an extensive neuropsychological battery. Relative to neuro-typical controls, patients with aphasia exhibited impaired coherence, and their ability to maintain coherent discourse was related to their performance on other language components: phonological production, fluency and semantic processing, rather than executive functions or motor speech. These results suggest that impairments in core language components play a role in reducing discourse coherence in post-stroke aphasia. Whole-brain voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping using univariate and multivariate approaches identified the contribution of the left prefrontal cortex, and particularly the inferior frontal gyrus (pars triangularis), to discourse coherence. These findings provide convergent evidence for the role of the inferior frontal gyrus in maintaining discourse coherence, which is consistent with the established role of this region in producing connected speech and semantic control (organising and selecting appropriate context-relevant concepts). These results make an important contribution to understanding the root causes of disrupted discourse production in post-stroke aphasia. Data for this project are available on the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/6psqj/
URL:
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Neurochemical profiles of the anterior temporal lobe predict response of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on semantic processing
Authors:
JeYoung, J., Williams, S.R., Nezhad, F.S. & LAMBON RALPH, M.A.
Reference:
NeuroImage
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8829
Abstract:
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive technique used to modulate cortical excitability in the human brain. However, one major challenge with rTMS is that the responses to stimulation are highly variable across individuals. The underlying reasons why responses to rTMS are highly variable between individuals still remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether the response to continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) – an effective rTMS protocol for decreasing cortical excitability – is related to individual differences in glutamate and GABA neurotransmission. We acquired resting-state magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during semantic processing. Then, we applied cTBS over the anterior temporal lobe (ATL), a hub for semantic representation, to explore the relationship between the baseline neurochemical profiles in this region and the response to this stimulation. We found that the baseline excitation-inhibition balance (glutamate + glutamine/GABA ratio) in the ATL was associated with individual cTBS responsiveness during semantic processing. Specifically, individuals with lower excitation-inhibition balance showed stronger inhibitory effect –poorer semantic performance. Our results revealed that non-responders (subjects who did not show an inhibitory effect of cTBS on subsequent semantic performance) had higher excitatory-inhibitory balance in the ATL, which led to up-regulated task-induced regional activity as well as increased ATL-connectivity with other semantic regions compared to responders. These results disclose that the baseline neurochemical state of a cortical region can be a significant factor in predicting responses to cTBS.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
On mistuning detection and beat perception for harmonic complex tones at low and very high frequencies
Authors:
GOCKEL, H. E, Carlyon, R.P.
Reference:
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 152(1), 226-239
Year of publication:
2022
CBU number:
8826
Abstract:
This study assessed the detection of mistuning of a single harmonic in complex tones (CTs) containing either low-frequency harmonics or very high-frequency harmonics, for which phase locking to the temporal fine structure is weak or absent. CTs had F0s of either 280 or 1400 Hz and contained harmonics 6-10, the 8th of which could be mistuned. Harmonics were presented either diotically or dichotically (odd and even harmonics to different ears). In the diotic condition, mistuning-detection thresholds were very low for both F0s and consistent with detection of temporal interactions (beats) produced by peripheral interactions of components. In the dichotic condition, for which the components in each ear were more widely spaced and beats were not reported, the mistuned component was perceptually segregated from the complex for the low F0, but subjects reported no “popping out” for the high F0 and performance was close to chance. This is consistent with the idea that phase locking is required for perceptual segregation to occur. For diotic presentation, the perceived beat rate corresponded to the amount of mistuning (in Hertz). It is argued that the beat percept cannot be explained solely by interactions between the mistuned component and its two closest harmonic neighbours.
URL:
Data available, click to request
Whether and how can a growth mindset intervention help students in a non-western culture? Evidence from a field experiment in China
Authors:
Huang, Z., Wei, Xiangdong., LU, R & Shi, J
Reference:
Educational Psychology
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8824
Abstract:
An increasing amount of research has indicated that the effectiveness of growth mindset (GM) intervention is sensitive to population characteristics. However, few studies have investigated whether GM interventions can be leveraged to promote academic performance among non-westerners such as Chinese students. Attuning to the Chinese background, we developed an extended GM intervention by incorporating both the malleability of intelligence and that of emotion. We examined the effect of the intervention in 11 schools across 48 classes in China and found that the intervention significantly improved students’ maths achievement with intrinsic motivation playing a partial mediating role. Different from the mechanism in the Western, the implicit theories of emotion, rather than implicit theories of intelligence, are more likely to play a role in the effects of the GM intervention on intrinsic motivation and maths achievement. Future studies are required for directly examining the role of implicit theories of emotion.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
A multi-site, multi-participant magnetoencephalography resting-state dataset to study dementia: The BioFIND dataset
Authors:
VAGHARI, D., Bruna, R., HUGHES, L.E., Nesbitt, D., TIBON, R., ROWE, J.B., Maestu, F., & HENSON, R.N.
Reference:
Neuroimage, 31 May 2022, 258:119344
Year of publication:
2022
CBU number:
8820
Abstract:
Early detection of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is vital to reduce the burden of dementia and for developing effective treatments. Neuroimaging can detect early brain changes, such as hippocampal atrophy in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), a prodromal state of AD. However, selecting the most informative imaging features by machine-learning requires many cases. While large publically-available datasets of people with dementia or prodromal disease exist for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), comparable datasets are missing for Magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG offers advantages in its millisecond resolution, revealing physiological changes in brain oscillations or connectivity before structural changes are evident with MRI. We introduce a MEG dataset with 324 individuals: patients with MCI and healthy controls. Their brain activity was recorded while resting with eyes closed, using a 306-channel MEG scanner at one of two sites (Madrid or Cambridge), enabling tests of generalization across sites. A T1-weighted MRI is provided to assist source localisation. The MEG and MRI data are formatted according to international BIDS standards and analysed freely on the DPUK platform (https://portal.dementiasplatform.uk/Apply). Here, we describe this dataset in detail, report some example (benchmark) analyses, and consider its limitations and future directions.
URL:
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Neuropsychiatric risk in children with intellectual disability of genetic origin: IMAGINE – The UK National Cohort Study
Authors:
Wolstencroft, J., Wicks, F., Srinivasan, R., Wynn, S., Ford, T., BAKER, K., Chawmner, S.J.R.A., Hall, J., van den Bree, M., Owen, M.J., IMAGINE Study, Skuse, D., Raymond, L.
Reference:
Lancet Psychiatry
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8819
Abstract:
Background Children with intellectual disability (ID) frequently have multiple co-morbid neuropsychiatric conditions and poor physical health. Genomic testing is increasingly recommended as a first-line investigation for these children. We aimed to determine the impact of genomics, inheritance and socioeconomic deprivation on neuropsychiatric risk in children with intellectual disability of genetic origin as compared to the general population. Methods IMAGINE is a prospective study using online mental health and medical assessments in a cohort of 2770 children with ID and pathogenic genomic variants, identified by the UK’s National Health Service. Outcomes Assessments completed on 2397 young people with ID (4-19 years, M 9·2, SD 3·9) with a rare pathogenic genomic variant. 1339 (55·9%) were male and 1058 (44·1%) were female. 1771 (73·9%) of participants had a pathogenic copy number variant (CNV), 626 (26·1%) a pathogenic single nucleotide variant (SNV). Participants were representative of the socioeconomic spectrum of the UK general population. The relative risk of co-occurring neuropsychiatric diagnoses, compared with the UK national population, was high: Autism Spectrum Disorder 29·2 (95% CI 23·9 to 36·5), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 13·5 (95% CI 11·1 to 16·3). In children with a CNV, those with a familial variant tended to live in more socioeconomically deprived areas. Both inheritance and socioeconomic deprivation contributed to neuropsychiatric risk in those with a CNV. Interpretation Children with genomic variants and ID are at a greatly enhanced risk of neuropsychiatric difficulties. CNV variant inheritance and socioeconomic deprivation also contribute to the risk. Early genomic investigations of children with intellectual disability could facilitate the identification of the most vulnerable children. In addition, harnessing parental expertise using online DAWBA assessments could rapidly highlight children with exceptional needs to child mental health services. Data Sharing statement The full phenotypic IMAGINE dataset is available from the UK Data Archive under special license access (SN 8621): https://beta.ukdataservice.ac.uk/datacatalogue/studies/study?id=8621 Requests for genotype or linked genotypic-phenotypic data can be made through the study’s data access committee: https://imagine-id.org/healthcare-professionals/datasharing/
Data available, click to request
Testing deprivation and threat: A pre-registered network analysis of the dimensions of early adversity
Authors:
CAROZZA, Holmes, J., ASTLE, D.
Reference:
Psychological Science
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8818
Abstract:
Despite abundant evidence of the detrimental effects of childhood adversity, its nature and underlying mechanism(s) remain contested. One influential theory, the Dimensional Model of Adversity and Psychopathology, proposes deprivation and threat as distinct dimensions of early experience. In this pre-registered analysis of data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we used a network and clustering approach to assess the dimensionality of relationships between childhood adversity and adolescent cognition and emotional functioning, and recursive partitioning to identify timing effects. We found evidence that deprivation and threat are separate dimensions of adversity, and that early experiences of deprivation cluster with later measures of cognition and emotional functioning. This cluster varies by age of exposure, such that it includes fewer forms of deprivation as children grow from infancy to middle childhood. Our measures did not form a specific cluster linking threat to emotional functioning. Open Practices Statement The pre-registration for this study can be found at AsPredicted.org (aspredicted.org/blind.php?x=sw8x9w) and code for all analyses on the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/y6f2c/?view_only=b5734ad90f014a1d981df3a59efe54f7). Data are available by application to ALSPAC (www.bristol.ac.uk/alspac/researchers/access/).


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