skip to primary navigation skip to content


Data Repository


This page shows all 249 data sets currently available in our Data repository

To search for specific data sets, please use the CBSU Bibliography search form


Showing page of 25


Direct and indirect links between children’s socio-economic status and education: pathways via mental health, attitude, and cognition
Authors:
DALMAIJER, E., BIGNARDI, G., ANWYL-IRVINE, A., SIUGZDAITE, R. SMITH, T., UH, S., Johnson, A., ASTLE, D.
Reference:
Current Psychology (2021)
Year of publication:
2021
CBU number:
8748
Abstract:
A child’s socio-economic environment can profoundly affect their development. While existing literature focusses on simplified metrics and pair-wise relations between few variables, we aimed to capture complex interrelationships between several relevant domains using a broad assessment of 519 children aged 7–9 years. Our analyses comprised three multivariate techniques that complimented each other, and worked at different levels of granularity. First, an exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis followed by varimax rotation) revealed that our sample varied along continuous dimensions of cognition, attitude and mental health (from parallel analysis); with potentially emerging dimensions speed and socio-economic status (passed Kaiser’s criterion). Second, k-means cluster analysis showed that children did not group into discrete phenotypes. Third, a network analysis on the basis of bootstrapped partial correlations (confirmed by both cross-validated LASSO and multiple comparisons correction of binarised connection probabilities) uncovered how our developmental measures interconnected: educational outcomes (reading and maths fluency) were directly related to cognition (short-term memory, number sense, processing speed, inhibition). By contrast, mental health (anxiety and depression symptoms) and attitudes (conscientiousness, grit, growthmindset) showed indirect relationships with educational outcomes via cognition. Finally, socio-economic factors (neighbourhood deprivation, family affluence) related directly to educational outcomes, cognition, mental health, and even grit. In sum, cognition is a central cog through which mental health and attitude relate to educational outcomes. However, through
URL:
Data available, click to request
Validation of the Child-version of the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire of repetitive negative thinking in young people with diagnosed depressive and anxiety disorders
Authors:
HITCHCOCK, C., Brown, R., Cobham, V.
Reference:
British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8746
Abstract:
This paper sought to provide the first validation of a transdiagnostic measure of repetitive negative thinking – the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire- Child version (PTQ-C) – in young people diagnosed with anxiety and depressive disorders. Participants (N=114) were 11-17 year-olds with complex and comorbid presentations seeking treatment through Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. Confirmatory factor analyses best supported a three-factor model for the PTQ-C, however, hypotheses of both perfect and close fit were rejected, and a subsequent bifactor model suggested minimal unique variance for each subscale. Results demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent validity and divergent validity for the total score and three PTQ-S subscales; core characteristics, perceived unproductiveness and consumed mental capacity of negative repetitive thinking. PTQ-C scores did not account for additional variance in anxiety symptoms once worry was considered, indicating that retention of a content specific measure may be warranted in clinical samples. Findings emphasise the importance of validating clinically relevant measures which were developed with subclinical populations in samples with diagnosed mental health disorders.
URL:
Data available, click to request
Spatially adjacent regions in posterior cingulate cortex represent familiar faces at different levels of complexity
Authors:
RAJIMEHR, R., Afzalian, N.
Reference:
Journal of Neuroscience
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8745
Data available, click to request
Lesion site and therapy time predict responses to a therapy for anomia after stroke: a prognostic model development study
Authors:
Hope, T., NARDO, D., Holland, R., Ondobaka, S., Akkad, H., Price, C,. Leff, A., Crinion, J.
Reference:
Scientific Reports, 11, 18572
Year of publication:
2021
CBU number:
8742
Abstract:
Stroke is a leading cause of disability, and language impairments (aphasia) after stroke are both common and particularly feared. Most stroke survivors with aphasia exhibit anomia (difficulties with naming common objects), but while many therapeutic interventions for anomia have been proposed, treatment effects are typically much larger in some patients than others. Here, we asked whether that variation might be more systematic, and even predictable, than previously thought. 18 patients, each at least 6 months after left hemisphere stroke, engaged in a computerised treatment for their anomia over a 6-week period. Using only: (a) the patients’ initial accuracy when naming (to-be) trained items; (b) the hours of therapy that they devoted to the therapy; and (c) whole-brain lesion location data, derived from structural MRI; we developed Partial Least Squares regression models to predict the patients’ improvements on treated items, and tested them in cross-validation. Somewhat surprisingly, the best model included only lesion location data and the hours of therapy undertaken. In cross-validation, this model significantly out-performed the null model, in which the prediction for each patient was simply the mean treatment effect of the group. This model also made promisingly accurate predictions in absolute terms: the correlation between empirical and predicted treatment response was 0.62 (95% CI 0.27, 0.95). Our results indicate that individuals’ variation in response to anomia treatment are, at least somewhat, systematic and predictable, from the interaction between where and how much lesion damage they have suffered, and the time they devoted to the therapy.
URL:
Data available, click to request
Does Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) in motor cortex reflect compensation?
Authors:
KNIGHTS, E., Morcom, A., HENSON, R.N.
Reference:
Journal of Neuroscience, 27 Sep 2021
Year of publication:
2021
CBU number:
8741
Abstract:
Older adults tend to display greater brain activation in the non-dominant hemisphere during even basic sensorimotor responses. It is debated whether this Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) reflects a compensatory mechanism. Across two independent fMRI experiments involving adult-lifespan human samples (N = 586 and N = 81; approximately half female) who performed right hand finger responses, we distinguished between these hypotheses using behavioural and multivariate Bayes (MVB) decoding approaches. Standard univariate analyses replicated a HAROLD pattern in motor cortex, but in- and out-of-scanner behavioural results both demonstrated evidence against a compensatory relationship, in that reaction time measures of task performance in older adults did not relate to ipsilateral motor activity. Likewise, MVB showed that this increased ipsilateral activity in older adults did not carry additional information, and if anything, combining ipsilateral with contralateral activity patterns reduced action decoding in older adults (at least in Experiment 1). These results contradict the hypothesis that HAROLD is compensatory, and instead suggest that the age-related, ipsilateral hyper-activation is non-specific, in line with alternative hypotheses about age-related reductions in neural efficiency/differentiation or inter-hemispheric inhibition. Analysis scripts: https://github.com/ethanknights/HAROLD-MVB Behavioural & extracted-ROI datasets: https://osf.io/seuz5/
URL:
Data available, click to request
Evidence for a pervasive autobiographical memory impairment in Logopenic Progressive Aphasia
Authors:
RAMANAN, S., Foxe, D., El-Omar, H., Ahmed, R.M., Hodges, J.R., Piguet, O., Irish, M.
Reference:
Neurobiology of Aging, 108, 168-178
Year of publication:
2021
CBU number:
8739
Abstract:
Although characterized primarily as a language disorder, mounting evidence indicates episodic amnesia in Logopenic Progressive Aphasia (LPA). Whether such memory disturbances extend to information encoded pre-disease onset remains unclear. To address this question, we examined autobiographical memory in 10 LPA patients, contrasted with 18 typical amnestic Alzheimer’s disease and 16 healthy Control participants. A validated assessment, the Autobiographical Interview, was employed to explore autobiographical memory performance across the lifespan under free and probed recall conditions. Relative to Controls, LPA patients showed global impairments across all time periods for free recall, scoring at the same level as disease-matched cases of Alzheimer’s Disease. Importantly, these retrieval deficits persisted in LPA, even when structured probing was provided, and could not be explained by overall level of language disruption or amount of information generated during autobiographical narration. Autobiographical memory impairments in LPA related to grey matter intensity decrease in predominantly posterior parietal brain regions implicated in memory retrieval. Together, our results suggest that episodic memory disturbances may be an under-appreciated clinical feature of LPA.
URL:
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Education and Income Show Heterogeneous Relationships to Lifespan Brain and Cognitive Differences Across European and US Cohorts
Authors:
Walhovd, K.B., Fjell, A.M., Wang, Y., Amlien, I.K., Mowinckel, A.M., Lindenberger, U., Düzel, S., Bartrés-Faz, D., Ebmeier, K.P., Drevon, K.A., Baaré, W.F.C., Ghisletta, P., Baruël Johansen, L., KIEVIT, R.A., HENSON, R.N., Madsen, K.S., Nyberg, L., Harris, J.R., Solé-Padullés, C., Pudas, S., Sørensen, O., Westerhausen, R., Zsoldos, E., Nawijn, L., Lyngstad, T.H., Suri, S., Penninx, B., Rogeberg, O.J., Brandmaier, A.M.
Reference:
Cerebral Cortex, bhab248, 2021
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8738
Abstract:
Higher socio-economic status (SES) has been proposed to have facilitating and protective effects on brain and cognition. We ask whether relationships between SES, brain volumes and cognitive ability differ across cohorts, by age and national origin. European and US cohorts covering the lifespan were studied (4–97 years, N = 500 000; 54 000 w/brain imaging). There was substantial heterogeneity across cohorts for all associations. Education was positively related to intracranial (ICV) and total gray matter (GM) volume. Income was related to ICV, but not GM. We did not observe reliable differences in associations as a function of age. SES was more strongly related to brain and cognition in US than European cohorts. Sample representativity varies, and this study cannot identify mechanisms underlying differences in associations across cohorts. Differences in neuroanatomical volumes partially explained SES–cognition relationships. SES was more strongly related to ICV than to GM, implying that SES–cognition relations in adulthood are less likely grounded in neuroprotective effects on GM volume in aging. The relatively stronger SES–ICV associations rather are compatible with SES–brain volume relationships being established early in life, as ICV stabilizes in childhood. The findings underscore that SES has no uniform association with, or impact on, brain and cognition.
URL:
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Ageing and the Ipsilateral M1 BOLD Response: A Connectivity Study
Authors:
Tak, Y.W., KNIGHTS, E., HENSON, R., Zeidman, P.
Reference:
Brain Sciences, 11(9), 10.3390/brainsci11091130
Year of publication:
2021
CBU number:
8737
Abstract:
Young people exhibit a negative BOLD response in ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) when making unilateral movements, such as button presses. This negative BOLD response becomes more positive as people age. In this study, we investigated why this occurs, in terms of the underlying effective connectivity and haemodynamics. We applied dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to task fMRI data from 635 participants aged 18–88 from the Cam-CAN dataset, who performed a cued button pressing task with their right hand. We found that connectivity from contralateral supplementary motor area (SMA) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) to ipsilateral M1 became more positive with age, explaining 44% of the variability across people in ipsilateral M1 responses. In contrast, connectivity from contralateral M1 to ipsilateral M1 was weaker and did not correlate with individual differences in rM1 BOLD. Neurovascular and haemodynamic parameters in the model were not able to explain the age-related shift to positive BOLD. Our results add to a body of evidence implicating neural, rather than vascular factors as the predominant cause of negative BOLD—while emphasising the importance of inter-hemispheric connectivity. This study provides a foundation for investigating the clinical and lifestyle factors that determine the sign and amplitude of the M1 BOLD response in ageing, which could serve as a proxy for neural and vascular health, via the underlying neurovascular mechanisms Analysis scripts: https://github.com/ethanknights/HAROLD-MVB Behavioural & extracted-ROI datasets: https://osf.io/seuz5/
URL:
Data available, click to request
Imaging Brain Glx Dynamics in Response to Pressure Pain Stimulation: A 1H-fMRS Study.
Authors:
Jelen, L.A., Lythgoe, D.J., JACKSON, J.B., Howard, M.A., Stone, J.M., Egerton, A.
Reference:
Frontiers in Psychiatry: Neuroimaging and Stimulation, 12: 681419
Year of publication:
2021
CBU number:
8727
Abstract:
Glutamate signalling is increasingly implicated across a range of psychiatric, neurological and pain disorders. Reliable methodologies are needed to probe the glutamate system and understand glutamate dynamics in vivo. Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-fMRS) is a technique that allows measurement of glutamatergic metabolites over time in response to task conditions including painful stimuli. In this study, 18 healthy volunteers underwent 1H-fMRS during a pressure-pain paradigm (8 blocks of REST and 8 blocks of PAIN) across two separate sessions. During each session, estimates of glutamate + glutamine (Glx), scaled to total creatine (tCr = creatine + phosphocreatine) were determined for averaged REST and PAIN conditions within two separate regions of interest: the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsal ACC (dACC). A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance determined a significant main effect of CONDITION (p = 0.025), with higher Glx/tCr during PAIN compared to REST across combined sessions, in the dACC ROI only. However, increases in dACC Glx/tCr during PAIN compared to REST showed limited reliability and reproducibility across sessions. Future test-retest 1H-fMRS studies should examine modified or alternative paradigms to determine more reliable methodologies to challenge the glutamate system that may then be applied in patient groups and experimental medicine studies.
URL:
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Grip strength from midlife as an indicator of later-life brain health and cognition: Evidence from a British birth cohort
Authors:
DERCON, Q., Nicholas, J.M., James, S-N., Schott, J.M., Richards, M.
Reference:
BMC Geriatrics, 01 Jan 2021, 21(1)
Year of publication:
2021
CBU number:
8726
Abstract:
Background: Grip strength is an indicator of physical function with potential predictive value for health in ageing populations. We assessed whether trends in grip strength from midlife predicted later-life brain health and cognition. Methods: 446 participants in an ongoing British birth cohort study, the National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD), had their maximum grip strength measured at ages 53, 60-64, and 69, and subsequently underwent neuroimaging as part of a neuroscience sub-study, referred to as “Insight 46”, at age 69-71. A group-based trajectory model identified latent groups of individuals in the whole NSHD cohort with below- or above-average grip strength over time, plus a reference group. Group assignment, plus standardised grip strength levels and change from midlife were each related to measures of whole-brain volume (WBV) and white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV), plus several cognitive tests. Models were adjusted for sex, body size, head size (where appropriate), sociodemographics, and behavioural and vascular risk factors. Results: Lower grip strength from midlife was associated with smaller WBV and lower matrix reasoning scores at age 69-71, with findings consistent between analysis of individual time points and analysis of trajectory groups. There was little evidence of an association between grip strength and other cognitive test scores. Although greater declines in grip strength showed a weak association with higher WMHV at age 69-71, trends in the opposite direction were seen at individual time points with higher grip strength at ages 60-64, and 69 associated with higher WMHV. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence that maximum grip strength may have value in predicting brain health. Future work should assess to what extent age-related declines in grip strength from midlife reflect concurrent changes in brain structure.
URL:
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.


genesis();