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Our publication database contains 7501 publications dating back to 1943. You can browse some of the most recently added entries below, or you can:

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Training-dependent transfer within a set of nested tasks
Authors:
RENNIE, J, JONES, J., ASTLE, D.
Reference:
Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8608
Abstract:
Extended practice on a particular cognitive task can boost the performance of other tasks, even though they themselves have not been practiced. This transfer of benefits appears to be specific, occurring most when tasks are very similar to those being trained. But what type of similarity is most important for predicting transfer? This question is addressed with a tightly controlled randomised design, with a relatively large sample (N=175) and an adaptive control group. We created a hierarchical set of nested assessment tasks. Participants then trained on two of the tasks: one was relatively ‘low’ in the hierarchy requiring just simultaneous judgments of shapes’ spikiness, whereas the other was relatively ‘high’ requiring delayed judgments of shapes’ spikiness or number of spikes in a switching paradigm. Using the full complement of nested tasks before and after training we could then test whether and how these ‘low’ and ‘high’ training effects cascade through the hierarchy. For both training groups, relative to the control, whether or not an assessment task shared a single specific feature was the best predictor of transfer patterns. For the lower-level training group, the overall proportion of feature overlap also significantly predicted transfer, but the same was not true for the higher-level training group. Finally, pre-training between-task correlations were not predictive of the pattern of transfer for either group. Together these findings provide an experimental exploration of the specificity of transfer, and establish the nature of task overlap that is crucial for the transfer of performance improvements.  
An ecologically motivated image dataset for deep learning yields better models of human vision
Authors:
MEHRERA, J., Spoerer, C.J., Jones, E.C., Kriegeskorte, N, & Kietzmann, T
Reference:
PNAS
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8607
Abstract:
Deep neural networks provide the current best models of visual information processing in the primate brain. Drawing on work from computer vision, the most commonly used networks are pre-trained on data from the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge. This dataset comprises images from 1000 categories, selected to provide a challenging testbed for automated visual object recognition systems. Moving beyond this common practice, we here introduce ecoset, a collection of >1.5 million images from 565 basic-level categories selected to better capture the distribution of objects relevant to humans. Ecoset categories were chosen to be both, frequent in linguistic usage and concrete, thereby mirroring important physical objects in the world. We test the effects of training on this ecologically more valid dataset using multiple instances of two neural network architectures: AlexNet and vNet, a novel architecture designed to mimic the progressive increase in receptive field sizes along the human ventral stream. We show that training on ecoset leads to significant improvements in predicting representations in human higher-level visual cortex and perceptual judgments, surpassing the previous state of the art. Significant and highly consistent benefits are demonstrated for both architectures on two separate fMRI datasets and behavioral data, jointly covering responses to 1292 visual stimuli from a wide variety of object categories. These results suggest that computational visual neuroscience may take better advantage of the deep learning framework by using image sets that reflect the human perceptual and co
A predictive account of how novelty influences declarative memory
Authors:
QUENT, A., HENSON, R., GREVE, A.
Reference:
Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8606
Abstract:
A rich body of studies in the human and non-human literature has examined the question how novelty influences memory. For a variety of different stimuli, ranging from simple objects and words to vastly complex scenarios, the literature reports that novelty improves memory in some cases, but impairs memory in other cases. In recent attempts to reconcile these conflicting findings, novelty has been divided into different subtypes, such as relative versus absolute novelty, or stimulus versus contextual novelty. Nevertheless, a single overarching theory of novelty and memory has been difficult to attain, probably due to the complexities in the interactions among stimuli, environmental factors (e.g., spatial and temporal context) and level of prior knowledge (but see Duszkiewicz et al., 2019; Kafkas & Montaldi, 2018b; Schomaker & Meeter, 2015). Here we describe how a predictive coding framework might be able to shed new light on different types of novelty and how they affect declarative memory in humans. More precisely, we consider how prior expectations modulate the influence of novelty on encoding episodes into memory, e.g., in terms of surprise, and how novelty/surprise affect memory for surrounding information. By reviewing a range of behavioural findings and their possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms, we highlight where a predictive coding framework succeeds and where it appears to struggle.
Distinct neural effects of psychological therapy and antidepressant medication on the brain’s affect circuitry: a synthesis across three meta-analyses
Authors:
NORD, C.L., Feldman Barrett, L., Lindquist, K.A., Ma, Y., Marwood, L., Satpute, A.B., DALGLEISH, T.
Reference:
Camilla L Nord, PhD1, Lisa Feldman Barrett, PhD2, Kristen A. Lindquist, PhD3, Yina Ma, PhD4, Lindsey Marwood, PhD5, Ajay B Satpute, PhD2, Tim Dalgleish, PhD1
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8605
Abstract:
Background: Influential theories predict that antidepressant medication (ADM) and psychological therapies (PT) evoke distinct neural changes. Aims: We tested the convergence and divergence of ADM- and PT-evoked neural changes, and their overlap with the brain’s affect network. Method: We employ a quantitative synthesis of three meta-analyses (n=4206). First, we assessed the common and distinct neural changes evoked by ADM and PT, by contrasting two comparable meta-analyses reporting the neural effects of ADM and PT. Both meta-analyses included patients with affective disorders, including major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, and panic disorder. The majority were assessed using negative valence tasks during neuroimaging. Next, we assessed whether the neural changes evoked by ADM and PT overlapped with the brain’s affect network, using data from a third meta-analysis of affect-based neural activation. Results: We find that neural changes from PT and ADM do not significantly converge on any region. ADM evokes neural changes in the amygdala, while PT evokes anatomically-distinct changes in medial prefrontal cortex. Contrasts with the third affect network meta-analysis revealed that both PT and ADM changes separately converge on regions of the affect network. Conclusions: This supports the notion of treatment-specific brain effects of ADM and PT. Both ADM and PT induce changes in the affect network, but our results suggest the effects of ADM and PT on emotion processing occur via distinct proximal neurocognitive mechanisms of action.
Transient neural network dynamics in cognitive ageing
Authors:
TIBON. R., Tsvetanov, K.A., PRICE, D., NESBITT, D., Cam-CAN., HENSON, R.,
Reference:
Neurobiology of Aging
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8604
Abstract:
It is important to maintain cognitive function in old age, yet the neural substrates that support successful cognitive ageing remain unclear. One factor that might be crucial, but has been overlooked due to limitations of previous data and methods, is the ability of brain networks to flexibly reorganize and coordinate over a millisecond time-scale. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) provides such temporal resolution, and can be combined with Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to characterise transient neural states. We applied HMMs to resting-state MEG data from a large cohort (N=595) of population-based adults (aged 18-88), who also completed a range of cognitive tasks. Using multivariate analysis of neural and cognitive profiles, we found that decreased occurrence of “lower-order” brain networks, coupled with increased occurrence of “higher-order” networks, was associated with both increasing age and decreased fluid intelligence. These results favour theories of age-related reductions in neural efficiency over current theories of age-related functional compensation, and suggest that this shift might reflect a stable property of the ageing brain.
 A classroom intervention targeting working memory, attention and language skills: a cluster randomised feasibility trial
Authors:
Rowe, A., Titterington, J., HOLMES, J., Henry, L., Taggart, L.
Reference:
Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8603
Abstract:
Background: International debate around the best models of speech and language therapy provision for children with language disorders has highlighted the need for research into classroom-based approaches and intervention dosage. Working memory (WM) is a cognitive skill linked to attention and language. ‘Recall to Enhance Children’s Attention, Language and Learning’ (RECALL) is a novel, six week, classroom-based intervention delivered by health professionals (HPs) and teachers. It is designed to target WM and enhance attention and language skills in 4-5 year olds. Methods: A cluster randomised feasibility trial was conducted to investigate aspects of the feasibility of a definitive trial to evaluate RECALL: i) recruitment and sampling procedures; ii) compliance and fidelity; iii) the acceptability of RECALL to HPs and teachers; iv) the appropriateness of the outcome measures. Six classes of 4-5 year olds participated: two received RECALL; two received an existing intervention targeting attention skills (not underpinned by WM theory); and two received education as usual (no intervention). Ten children in each class (n= 60) were sampled to assess the appropriateness of the outcome measures. Classroom observations were conducted to measure fidelity and semi-structured interviews with HPs and teachers explored the acceptability of RECALL. Results: The recruitment targets were met and all six schools completed the trial but the sampling procedures require modification. Compliance was good (95% of RECALL sessions were delivered) but fidelity to the intervention protocol varied between 76% and 45% across the two schools. This was influenced by: large class sizes; child factors; and facilitator factors e.g., their understanding of the theory RECALL Cluster Randomised Feasibility Trial – manuscript accepted by Pilot and Feasibility Studies January 2021 3 underpinning the intervention. The lack of fidelity reduced the dose (number of practice items) accessed by individual children, particularly those most at risk. There were mixed findings regarding the acceptability of RECALL and the appropriateness of the outcome measures. Conclusions: The trial could be easily scaled-up in a future definitive trial, with an amended sampling procedure. RECALL should be repackaged as a small group intervention to enhance the fidelity of its delivery and its acceptability to HPs and teachers. This study highlights the need for thorough training for professionals who deliver classroom-based interventions for children with language disorders.
How biopsychosocial depressive risk shapes behavioral and neural responses to social evaluation in adolescence
Authors:
STRETTON, J., Walsh, N., Mobbs, Dean, Schweizer, S., van Harmelen, A-L., Lombardo, M., Goodyer, I., DALGLEISH, T.
Reference:
Brain and Behaviour
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8602
Abstract:
Introduction Understanding the emotional responsivity style and neurocognitive profiles of depression-related processes in at-risk youth may be helpful in revealing those most likely to develop affective disorders. However, the multiplicity of biopsychosocial risk factors makes it difficult to disentangle unique and combined effects at a neurobiological level. Methods In a population-derived sample of 56 older adolescents (aged 17-20), we adopted Partial Least Squares regression and correlation models to explore the relationships between multivariate biopsychosocial risks for later depression, emotional response style and fMRI activity, to rejecting and inclusive social feedback. Results Behaviorally, higher depressive risk was associated with both reduced negative affect following negative social feedback and reduced positive affect following positive social feedback. In response to both cues of rejection and inclusion, we observed a general neural pattern of increased cingulate, temporal and striatal activity in the brain. Secondly, in response to rejection only, we observed a pattern of activity in ostensibly executive control- and emotion regulation-related brain regions encompassing fronto-parietal brain networks including the angular gyrus. Conclusion The results suggest that risk for depression is associated with a pervasive emotional insensitivity in the face of positive and negative social feedback.
Listen up – it is time to integrate neuroscience and technologies into aphasia rehabilitation
Authors:
LAMBON RALPH, M.
Reference:
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8601
Abstract:
Imagine the impact on your daily and professional life of not being able to do what you are doing now; extracting meaning from language. This is a fate and frustration that faces many people with aphasia post stroke, in neurodegenerative disease or other forms of brain damage. The clinical demand and potential for efficacious interventions for aphasia are both clear. Aphasia following stroke, for example, is common (around 1/3 in the acute phase: ). Progressive language impairments are a core aspect of the symptom complex in Alzheimer’s disease, over and above the increasingly recognised progressive aphasias . Speech and language therapies for aphasia can be effective though there is a need to understand the mechanisms and the bases of the considerable individual differences in therapy effect.
Age-Related Differences in Adults. The Ability to Follow Spoken Instructions
Authors:
Jaroslawska, A.J., Bartup, G., Forsberg, A., & HOLMES, J.
Reference:
Memory
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8600
Abstract:
A growing body of research illustrates that working memory capacity is a crucial limiting factor in our ability to follow spoken instructions. Despite the ubiquitous nature of instruction following throughout the lifespan, how the natural ageing process affects the ability to do so is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the consequences of action at encoding and recall on the ability to follow spoken instructions. Younger ( 65 y/o) adults recalled sequences of spoken action commands under presentation and recall conditions that either did or did not involve their physical performance. Both groups showed an enacted-recall advantage, with superior recall by physical performance than oral repetition. When both encoding and recall were purely verbal, older adults’ recall accuracy was comparable to that of their younger counterparts. When action was involved at either encoding or recall, however, the difference in performance between the two age groups became pronounced: enactment-based encoding significantly improved younger adults’ ability to follow spoken instructions; there was no such advantage for older adults. These data show that spatial-motoric representations disproportionately benefit younger adults’ memory performance. We discuss the practical implications of these findings in the context of lifelong learning.
Map-like representations of an abstract conceptual space in the human brain
Authors:
BOKERIA, L., MOK, R., HENSON, R.
Reference:
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8599
Abstract:
Much of higher cognition involves abstracting away from sensory details and thinking conceptually. How do our brains learn and represent such abstract concepts? Recent work has proposed that neural representations in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), which are involved in spatial navigation, might also support learning of higher-level knowledge structures (Behrens et al., 2018; Bellmund et al., 2018). Under this view, a range of MTL neurons such as place cells, grid cells, and head-direction cells may support the ability to mentally “navigate” through conceptual space. This extends the original proposal by Tolman (1948) that people construct “cognitive maps” that support broad psychological functions, and offers the exciting potential of understanding the cognitive processes that underlie category learning, reinforcement learning and spatial navigation under a single unified framework


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