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Our publication database contains 7728 publications dating back to 1943. You can browse some of the most recently added entries below, or you can:

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Recently Added Publications


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Using Browser Data to Understand Desires to Spend Time Online
Authors:
McCrosky, J.D., Parry, D.A., Sewall, C.J.R., ORBEN, AM.
Reference:
Technology, Mind, and Behaviour
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8840
Abstract:
There is growing recognition that many people feel the need to regulate their use of the internet and other digital technologies to support their wellbeing. In this study, we used Mozilla Firefox browser telemetry to investigate the role played by various usage factors in desires to regulate time spent online. In particular, we investigated how six metrics pertaining to time spent on the internet, and the diversity and intensity of use, predict participants’ (n = 8,094) desires to spend more or less time online. Across all six metrics, we did not find evidence for a relationship between browser usage metrics and participants wanting to spend more or less time online. This finding was robust across various analytical pathways. The study highlights a number of considerations and concerns that need to be addressed in future industry-academia collaborations that draw on trace data or usage telemetry.
Effects of emotion and semantic relatedness on recognition memory: Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence
Authors:
Han, M., Bingcan, L., Chunyan, G & TIBON, R.
Reference:
Psychophysiology
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8839
Abstract:
Some aspects of our memory are enhanced by emotion, whereas others can be unaffected or even hindered. Previous studies reported impaired associative memory of emotional content, an effect termed associative “emotional interference”. The current study used EEG and an associative recognition paradigm to investigate the cognitive and neural mechanisms associated with this effect. In two experiments, participants studied negative and neutral stimulus-pairs that were either semantically related or unrelated. In Experiment 1 emotions were relevant to the encoding task (valence judgment) whereas in Experiment 2 emotions were irrelevant (familiarity judgment). In a subsequent associative recognition test, EEG was recorded while participants discriminated between intact, rearranged, and new pairs. An associative emotional interference effect was observed in both experiments, but was attenuated for semantically related pairs in Experiment 1, where valence was relevant to the task. Moreover, a modulation of an early associative memory ERP component (300–550 ms) occurred for negative pairs when valence was task-relevant (Experiment 1), but for semantically related pairs when valence was irrelevant (Experiment 2). A later ERP component (550–800 ms) showed a more general pattern, and was observed in all experimental conditions. These results suggest that both valence and semantic relations can act as an organizing principle that promotes associative binding. Their ability to contribute to successful retrieval depends on specific task demands.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Biallelic CACNA1A variants – review of literature and report of a child with drug-resistant epilepsy and developmental delay
Authors:
Wong-Spracklen, V.M.Y., Kolesnik, A., Eck, J., Sabanthan, S., Spasic-Boskovic, O., Maw, A., BAKER, K.
Reference:
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8838
Abstract:
Biallelic variants in CACNA1A have previously been reported in nine individuals (four families) presenting with epilepsy and cognitive impairments of variable severity and age-of-onset. Here, we describe a child who presented at six months of age with drug-resistant epilepsy and developmental delay. At ten years of age she has profound impairments in motor function and communication. MRI was initially unremarkable, but progressed to severe cerebellar atrophy by age 3 years. Next Generation Sequencing and panel analysis identified a maternally-inherited truncating variant c.2042_2043delAG, p.(Gln681ArgfsTer100) and paternally-inherited missense variant c.1693G>A, p.(Glu565Lys). In contrast to previously reported biallelic cases, parents carrying these monoallelic variants did not display clear signs of a CACNA1A-associated syndrome. In conclusion, we provide further evidence that biallelic CACNA1A variants can cause a severe epileptic and developmental encephalopathy with progressive cerebellar atrophy, and highlight complexities of genetic counselling in such situations
Semantic Cues Modulate Children’s and Adults’ Processing of Audio-Visual Face Mask Speech
Authors:
Schwarz, J., Li, K.K., Sim, J.H., Zhang, Y., BUCHANAN-WORSTER, E., Post, B., Gibson, J., McDougall, K.
Reference:
Frontiers in Psychology
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8837
Abstract:
During the COVID-19 pandemic, questions have been raised about the impact of face masks on communication in classroom settings. However, it is unclear to what extent visual obstruction of the speaker's mouth or changes to the acoustic signal lead to speech processing difficulties, and whether these effects can be mitigated by semantic predictability, i.e., the availability of contextual information. The present study investigated the acoustic and visual effects of face masks on speech intelligibility and processing speed under varying semantic predictability. 26 children (aged 8-12) and 26 adults performed an internet-based cued shadowing task, in which they had to repeat aloud the last word of sentences presented in audio-visual format. The results showed that children and adults made more mistakes and responded more slowly when listening to face mask speech compared to speech produced without a face mask. Adults were only significantly affected by face mask speech when both the acoustic and the visual signal were degraded. While acoustic mask effects were similar for children, removal of visual speech cues through the face mask affected children to a lesser degree. However, high semantic predictability reduced audio-visual mask effects, leading to full compensation of the acoustically degraded mask speech in the adult group. Even though children did not fully compensate for face mask speech with high semantic predictability, overall, they still profited from semantic cues in all conditions. Therefore, in classroom settings, strategies that increase contextual information such as building on students’ prior knowledge, using keywords, and providing visual aids, are likely to help overcome any adverse face mask effects.
The brain basis of cognition
Authors:
RAMANAN, S.
Reference:
Nature Reviews Psychology
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8836
Abstract:
In this Journal Club, Siddharth Ramanan discusses a review paper that been pivotal to understanding the genesis and neural organisation of higher order cognitive functions.
Inconsistencies between Subjective Reports of Cognitive Difficulties and Performance on Cognitive Tests are Associated with Elevated Internalising and Externalising Symptoms in Children with Learning-related Problems.
Authors:
Williams, K.L., HOLMES, J., Farina, F., VEDECHKINA, M., CALM Team, BENNETT, M.P.
Reference:
Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology
Year of publication:
2022
CBU number:
8835
Abstract:
Children with learning difficulties are commonly assumed to have underlying cognitive deficits by health and educational professionals. However, not all children referred for psycho-educational assessment will be found to have deficits when their abilities are measured by performance on cognitive tasks. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of this inconsistent cognitive profile (ICP) in a transdiagnostic sample of children referred by health and education service providers for problems related to attention, learning and memory (N = 715). A second aim was to explore whether elevated mental health problems were associated with ICPs. Findings suggest that approximately half of this sample could be characterised as having an ICP. Cognitive difficulties, whether identified by parent ratings or task performance, were associated with elevated internalising and externalising difficulties. Crucially, a larger discrepancy between a parent’s actual ratings of a child’s cognitive difficulties and the ratings that would be predicted based on the child’s performance on cognitive tasks was associated greater internalising and externalising difficulties for measures of working memory, and greater externalising difficulties for measures of attention. These findings suggest that subjective cognitive difficulties occurring in the absence of any task-based performance deficits may be a functional problem arising from mental health problems.
URL:
Damage to temporoparietal cortex is sufficient for impaired semantic control
Authors:
Thomson, H.E., Noonan, K.A., HALAI, A.D.M, Hoffman, P., Stampacchia, S., Hallam, G., RICE, , G.E., De Dois Perez, B., LAMBON RALPH, M.A., Jefferies, E.
Reference:
Cortex
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8834
Abstract:
Semantic control allows us to focus semantic activation on currently relevant aspects of knowledge, even in the face of competition or when the required information is weakly encoded. Diverse cortical regions, including left prefrontal and posterior temporal cortex, are implicated in semantic control, however; the relative contribution of these regions is unclear. For the first time, we compared semantic aphasia (SA) patients with damage restricted to temporoparietal cortex (TPC; N=8) to patients with infarcts encompassing prefrontal cortex (PF+; N=22), to determine if prefrontal lesions are necessary for semantic control deficits. These SA groups were also compared with semantic dementia (SD; N=10), characterised by degraded semantic representations. We asked whether TPC cases with semantic impairment show controlled retrieval deficits equivalent to PF+ cases or conceptual degradation similar to patients with SD. Independent of lesion location, the SA subgroups showed similarities, whereas SD patients showed a qualitatively distinct semantic impairment. Relative to SD, both TPC and PF+ SA subgroups: (1) showed few correlations in performance across tasks with differing control demands, but a strong relationship between tasks of similar difficulty; (2) exhibited attenuated effects of lexical frequency and concept familiarity, (3) showed evidence of poor semantic regulation in their verbal output – performance on picture naming was substantially improved when provided with a phonological cue, and (4) showed effects of control demands, such as retrieval difficulty, which were equivalent in severity across TPC and PF+ groups. These findings show that semantic impairment in SA is underpinned by damage to a distributed semantic control network, instantiated across anterior and posterior cortical areas.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Explicitly predicting outcomes enhances learning of expectancy‑violating information
Authors:
Brod, G., GREVE, A., Jolles, D., Theobald, M., Galeano-Seiner, E.M.
Reference:
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 29 June 2022
Year of publication:
2022
CBU number:
8833
Abstract:
Predictive coding models suggest that the brain constantly makes predictions about what will happen next based on past experiences. Learning is triggered by surprising events, i.e., a prediction error. Does it beneft learning when these predictions are made deliberately, so that an individual explicitly commits to an outcome before experiencing it? Across two experiments, we tested whether generating an explicit prediction before seeing numerical facts boosts learning of expectancy-violating information relative to doing so post hoc. Across both experiments, predicting boosted memory for highly unexpected outcomes, leading to a U-shaped relation between expectedness and memory. In the post hoc condition, memory performance decreased with increased unexpectedness. Pupillary data of Experiment 2 further indicated that the pupillary surprise response to highly expectancy-violating outcomes predicted successful learning of these outcomes. Together, these findings suggest that generating an explicit prediction increases learners’ stakes in the outcome, which particularly benefits learning of those outcomes that are different than expected.
URL:
Integrated neural dynamics for behavioral decisions and attentional competition in the prefrontal cortex
Authors:
EREZ, Y., KADOHISA, M., Petroc,P., Sigala, N., Buckley, M.J., KUSUNOKI, M., DUNCAN, J.D.
Reference:
European Journal of Neuroscience
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8832
Abstract:
In the behaving monkey, complex neural dynamics in the prefrontal cortex contribute to context-dependent decisions and attentional competition. We used demixed principal component analysis to track prefrontal activity dynamics in a cued target detection task. In this task, the animal combined identity of a visual object with a prior instruction cue to determine a target/nontarget decision. From population activity, we extracted principal components for each task feature, and examined their time course and sensitivity to stimulus and task variations. For displays containing a single choice object in left or right hemifield, object identity, cue identity and decision were all encoded in population activity, with different dynamics and lateralization. Object information peaked at 100-200 ms from display onset and was largely confined to the contralateral hemisphere. Cue information was weaker, and present even prior to display onset. Integrating information from cue and object, decision information arose more slowly, and was bilateral. Individual neurons contributed independently to coding of the three task features. The analysis was then extended to displays with a target in one hemifield and a competing distractor in the other. In this case, the data suggest that each hemisphere initially encoded the identity of the contralateral object. The distractor representation was then rapidly suppressed, with the final target decision again encoded bilaterally. The results show how information is coded along task-related dimensions while competition is resolved and suggest how information flows within and across frontal lobes to implement a learned behavioral decision.
Mapping lesion, structural disconnection, and functional disconnection to symptoms in semantic aphasia
Authors:
Souter, N.E., Wang, X., Thompson, H., Krieger‑Redwood, K., Halai, A.D., LAMBON RALPH, M.A., de Schotten, M.T., Jefferies, E
Reference:
Brain Structure and Function, 04 July 2022
Year of publication:
2022
CBU number:
8831
Abstract:
Patients with semantic aphasia have impaired control of semantic retrieval, often accompanied by executive dysfunction following left hemisphere stroke. Many but not all of these patients have damage to the left inferior frontal gyrus, important for semantic and cognitive control. Yet semantic and cognitive control networks are highly distributed, including posterior as well as anterior components. Accordingly, semantic aphasia might not only reflect local damage but also white matter structural and functional disconnection. Here we characterise the lesions and predicted patterns of structural and functional disconnection in individuals with semantic aphasia and relate these effects to semantic and executive impairment. Impaired semantic cognition was associated with infarction in distributed lefthemisphere regions, including in the left anterior inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortex. Lesions were associated with executive dysfunction within a set of adjacent but distinct left frontoparietal clusters. Performance on executive tasks was also associated with interhemispheric structural disconnection across the corpus callosum. In contrast, poor semantic cognition was associated with small left-lateralized structurally disconnected clusters, including in the left posterior temporal cortex. Little insight was gained from functional disconnection symptom mapping. These results demonstrate that while leftlateralized semantic and executive control regions are often damaged together in stroke aphasia, these deficits are associated with distinct patterns of structural disconnection, consistent with the bilateral nature of executive control and the left-lateralized yet distributed semantic control network. Data for this project are available on the Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/6psqj/)
URL:
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.


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