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Our publication database contains 7845 publications dating back to 1943. You can browse some of the most recently added entries below, or you can:

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Recently Added Publications


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Decoding semantics from dynamic brain activation patterns: From Trials to task in EEG/MEG source space
Authors:
MAGNABOSCO, F., HAUK, O.
Reference:
eNeuro
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8950
Multilayer Perceptron Modeling for Social Dysfunction Prediction Based on General Health Factors in an Iranian Women Sample
Authors:
Bagheri, S., Taridashti, S., Farahani, H., WATSON, P., Rezvani, E.
Reference:
Frontiers in Psychiatry - Social Neuroscience
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8949
Building cognitive functions from distributed brain activity
Authors:
DUNCAN, J.
Reference:
Neuron
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8948
Abstract:
With recordings from temporal, parietal and frontal regions of the behaving monkey brain, accompanied by a powerful method for optogenetic silencing of the frontal region, Mendoza-Halliday et al. compare network functions for working memory and visual selective attention.
Unique information from common diffusion MRI models about white-matter differences across the human adult lifespan
Authors:
Henriques, R.N., HENSON, R. Cam-CAN & CORREIA, M.M.
Reference:
Imaging Neuroscience
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8947
Abstract:
Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dMRI) is sensitive to white matter microstructural changes across the human lifespan. Several models have been proposed to provide more sensitive and specific metrics than those provided by the conventional Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) analysis. However, previous results using different metrics have led to contradictory conclusions regarding the effect of age on fibre demyelination and axonal loss in adults. Moreover, it remains unclear whether these metrics provide distinct information about the effects of age, e.g., on different white-matter tracts. To address this, we analysed dMRI data from 651 adults approximately uniformly aged from 18 to 88 years in the Cam-CAN cohort, using six dMRI metrics: Fractional Anisotropy (FA) from standard DTI; Mean Signal Diffusion (MSD) and Mean Signal Kurtosis (MSK) from Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) applied to directional averaged diffusion-weighted signals; and Neurite Density Index (NDI), Orientation Dispersion Index (ODI) and isotropic Free water volume fraction (Fiso) estimated from Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI). Averaging across white-matter regions-of-interest (ROIs), second-order polynomial fits revealed that MSD, MSK and Fiso showed the strongest effects of age, with significant quadratic components suggesting more rapid and sometimes inverted effects in old age. Analysing the data in different age subgroups revealed that some apparent discrepancies in previous studies may be explained by the use of cohorts with different age ranges. Factor analysis of the six metrics across all ROIs revealed three independent factors that can be associated to 1) tissue microscopic properties (e.g. differences in fibre density/myelin), 2) free-water contamination, and 3) tissue configuration complexity (e.g. crossing, dispersing, fanning fibres). While FA captures a combination of different factors, other dMRI metrics are strongly aligned to specific factors (NDI and MSK with Factor 1, Fiso with Factor 2, and ODI with Factor 3). To assess whether directional diffusion and kurtosis quantities provide additional information about the effects of age, further factor analyses were also performed, which showed that additional information about the effects of age may be present in radial and axial kurtosis estimates (but not standard axial and radial diffusivity). In summary, our study offers an explanation for previous discrepancies reported in dMRI ageing studies and provides further insights on the interpretation of different dMRI metrics in the context of white matter microstructural properties.
Data available, click to request
Cycles of goal silencing and reactivation underlie complex problem-solving in primate frontal and parietal cortex
Authors:
Watanabe, K., Kadoshina,, M, Kusunoki, M, Buckley, M.J., DUNCAN, J.
Reference:
Nature Communication
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8946
Abstract:
While classic views proposed that working memory (WM) is mediated by sustained firing, recent evidence suggests a contribution of activity-silent states. Within WM, human neuroimaging studies suggest a switch between attentional foreground and background, with only the foregrounded item represented in active neural firing. To address this process at the cellular level, we recorded prefrontal (PFC) and posterior parietal (PPC) neurons in a complex problem-solving task, with monkeys searching for one or two target locations in a first cycle of trials, and retaining them for memory-guided revisits on subsequent cycles. When target locations were discovered, neither frontal nor parietal neurons showed sustained goal-location codes continuing into subsequent trials and cycles. Instead there were sequences of timely goal silencing and reactivation, and following reactivation, sustained states until behavioral response. With two target locations, goal representations in both regions showed evidence of transitions between foreground and background, but the PFC representation was more complete, extending beyond the current trial to include both past and future selections. In the absence of unbroken sustained codes, different neuronal states interact to support maintenance and retrieval of WM representations across successive trials.
Data available, click to request
Efficacy and moderators of efficacy of cognitive behavioural therapies with a trauma focus in children and adolescents: an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomised trials
Authors:
DE HAAN A., Meiser-Stedman, R., Landolt, M.A., Kuhn, I., Black, M.J., Klaus, K., Patel, S.D., Fisher, D.J., Haag, C., Ukoumunne, O.C., Jones, B.G., Muwafaq Flaiyah, A., Catani, C., Dawson, K., Bryant, R.A., de Roos, C., Ertl, V., Foa, E.B., Ford, J.D., Gilboa-Schechtman, E., Tutus, D., Hermenau, K., Hecker, T., Hultmann, Axberg, U., Jaberghaderi, N., Jensen, T.K., Ormhaug, S.M., Kenardy, J., Lindauer, R.J.L., Diehle, J., Murray, L.K., Kane, J.C., Peltonen, K., Kangaslampi, S., Robjant, K., Koebach, A., Rosner, R., Rossouw, J., Smith, P., Tonge, B.J., Hitchcock, C., DALGLEISH,T.
Reference:
The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, S2352-4642(23)00253-5
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8945
Abstract:
Background: Existing clinical trials of cognitive behavioural therapies with a trauma focus (CBTs-TF) are underpowered to examine key variables that might moderate treatment effects. We aimed to determine the efficacy of CBTs-TF for young people, relative to passive and active control conditions, and elucidate putative individual-level and treatment- level moderators. Methods: This was an individual participant data meta-analysis of published and unpublished randomised studies in young people aged 6−18 years exposed to trauma. We included studies identified by the latest UK National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guidelines (completed on Jan 29, 2018) and updated their search. The search strategy included database searches restricted to publications between Jan 1, 2018, and Nov 12, 2019; grey literature search of trial registries ClinicalTrials.gov and ISRCTN; preprint archives PsyArXiv and bioRxiv; and use of social media and emails to key authors to identify any unpublished datasets. The primary outcome was post-traumatic stress symptoms after treatment (<1 month after the final session). Predominantly, one-stage random-effects models were fitted. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42019151954. Findings: We identified 38 studies; 25 studies provided individual participant data, comprising 1686 young people (mean age 13∙65 years [SD 3∙01]), with 802 receiving CBTs-TF and 884 a control condition. The risk-of-bias assessment indicated five studies as low risk and 20 studies with some concerns. Participants who received CBTs-TF had lower mean post-traumatic stress symptoms after treatment than those who received the control conditions, after adjusting for post-traumatic stress symptoms before treatment (b=−13·17, 95% CI −17·84 to −8·50, p<0·001, τ²=103·72). Moderation analysis indicated that this effect of CBTs-TF on post-traumatic stress symptoms post-treatment increased by 0·15 units (b=−0·15, 95% CI −0·29 to −0·01, p=0·041, τ²=0·03) for each unit increase in pre-treatment post-traumatic stress symptoms. Interpretation: This is the first individual participant data meta-analysis of young people exposed to trauma. Our findings support CBTs-TF as the first-line treatment, irrespective of age, gender, trauma characteristics, or carer involvement in treatment, with particular benefits for those with higher initial distress. Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation.
Recurrent connectivity supports higher-level visual and semantic object representations in the brain
Authors:
VON SETH, J., Nicholls, V., Tyler, L., Clarke, A.
Reference:
Communications Biology, 6(1):1207
Year of publication:
2023
CBU number:
8944
Abstract:
Visual object recognition has been traditionally conceptualised as a predominantly feedforward process through the ventral visual pathway. While feedforward artificial neural networks (ANNs) can achieve human-level classification on some image-labelling tasks, it's unclear whether computational models of vision alone can accurately capture the evolving spatiotemporal neural dynamics. Here, we probe these dynamics using a combination of representational similarity and connectivity analyses of fMRI and MEG data recorded during the recognition of familiar, unambiguous objects. Modelling the visual and semantic properties of our stimuli using an artificial neural network as well as a semantic feature model, we find that unique aspects of the neural architecture and connectivity dynamics relate to visual and semantic object properties. Critically, we show that recurrent processing between the anterior and posterior ventral temporal cortex relates to higher-level visual properties prior to semantic object properties, in addition to semantic-related feedback from the frontal lobe to the ventral temporal lobe between 250 and 500 ms after stimulus onset. These results demonstrate the distinct contributions made by semantic object properties in explaining neural activity and connectivity, highlighting it as a core part of object recognition not fully accounted for by current biologically inspired neural networks. Data availability statement The data used in this research was obtained from different experiments with different availabilities. The MEG data collected as part of the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience was part of stage III and is available upon requested (see https://camcan-archive.mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/dataaccess/). The remaining MEG data is found here https://osf.io/2uqf4/105, and fMRI data here https://osf.io/e2s59/106. The source data to produce the figures is hosted at the same OSF site.
URL:
Data for this project is available at: https://osf.io/e2s59/106
Does functional system segregation mediate the effects of lifestyle on cognition in older adults?
Authors:
RAYKOV, P., KNIGHTS, E., HENSON, R., CAM-CAN.
Reference:
Neurobiology of Aging
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8943
Abstract:
Healthy aging is typically accompanied by cognitive decline. Previous work has shown that engaging in multiple, non-work activities during midlife can have a protective effect on cognition several decades later, rendering it less dependent on brain structural health; the definition of “cognitive reserve”. Other work has shown that increasing age is associated with reduced segregation of large-scale brain functional networks. Here we tested the hypothesis that functional segregation (SyS) mediates this effect of middle-aged lifestyle on late-life cognition. We used fMRI data from three tasks in the CamCAN dataset, together with cognitive data on fluid intelligence, episodic memory, and retrospective lifestyle data from the Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ). In all three tasks, we showed that SyS related to fluid intelligence even after adjusting for the (nonlinear) age effects. However, we found no evidence that SyS in late-life mediated the relationship between non-specific (non-occupation) midlife activities and either measure of cognition in late-life. Thus, the brain correlates of cognitive reserve arising from mid-life activities remain to be discovered. OSF: https://osf.io/bq3a7/
Data for this project is available at: https://osf.io/bq3a7/
Cost-effectiveness of providing university students with a mindfulness-based intervention to reduce psychological distress: economic evaluation of a pragmatic randomised controlled trial
Authors:
Wagner, A.P., Galante, J., Dufour, G., Barton, G., Stochl, J., VAINRE, M. and Jones, P.
Reference:
Objective Increasing numbers of young people attending university has raised concerns about the capacity of student mental health services to support them. We conducted a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to explore whether provision of an 8 week mindfulness course adapted for university students (Mindfulness Skills for Students—MSS), compared with university mental health support as usual (SAU), reduced psychological distress during the examination period. Here, we conduct an economic evaluation of MSS+SAU compared with SAU. Design and setting Economic evaluation conducted alongside a pragmatic, parallel, single-blinded RCT comparing provision of MSS+SAU to SAU. Participants 616 university students randomised. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary economic evaluation assessed the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained from the perspective of the university counselling service. Costs relate to staff time required to deliver counselling service offerings. QALYs were derived from the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Dimension 6 Dimension (CORE-6D) preference based tool, which uses responses to six items of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure (CORE-OM; primary clinical outcome measure). Primary follow-up duration was 5 and 7 months for the two recruitment cohorts. Results It was estimated to cost £1584 (2022 prices) to deliver an MSS course to 30 students, £52.82 per student. Both costs (adjusted mean difference: £48, 95% CI £40–£56) and QALYs (adjusted mean difference: 0.014, 95% CI 0.008 to 0.021) were significantly higher in the MSS arm compared with SAU. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was £3355, with a very high (99.99%) probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per QALY. Conclusions MSS leads to significantly improved outcomes at a moderate additional cost. The ICER of £3355 per QALY suggests that MSS is cost-effective when compared with the UK’s National Institute for Health and Care Excellence thresholds of £20 000 per QALY. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12615001160527.
Year of publication:
2023
CBU number:
8942
Abstract:
Objective Increasing numbers of young people attending university has raised concerns about the capacity of student mental health services to support them. We conducted a randomised controlled trial (RCT) to explore whether provision of an 8 week mindfulness course adapted for university students (Mindfulness Skills for Students-MSS), compared with university mental health support as usual (SAU), reduced psychological distress during the examination period. Here, we conduct an economic evaluation of MSS+SAU compared with SAU. Design and setting Economic evaluation conducted alongside a pragmatic, parallel, single-blinded RCT comparing provision of MSS+SAU to SAU. Participants 616 university students randomised. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary economic evaluation assessed the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained from the perspective of the university counselling service. Costs relate to staff time required to deliver counselling service offerings. QALYs were derived from the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Dimension 6 Dimension (CORE-6D) preference based tool, which uses responses to six items of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure (CORE-OM; primary clinical outcome measure). Primary follow-up duration was 5 and 7 months for the two recruitment cohorts. Results It was estimated to cost £1584 (2022 prices) to deliver an MSS course to 30 students, £52.82 per student. Both costs (adjusted mean difference: £48, 95% CI £40-£56) and QALYs (adjusted mean difference: 0.014, 95% CI 0.008 to 0.021) were significantly higher in the MSS arm compared with SAU. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was £3355, with a very high (99.99%) probability of being cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per QALY. Conclusions MSS leads to significantly improved outcomes at a moderate additional cost. The ICER of £3355 per QALY suggests that MSS is cost-effective when compared with the UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence thresholds of £20 000 per QALY. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12615001160527.
URL:
Data available, click to request
Mood, Activity Participation, and Leisure Engagement Satisfaction (MAPLES): results from a randomised controlled pilot feasibility trial for low mood in acquired brain injury.
Authors:
KUSEC, A., MURPHY, F.C., PEERS, P.V., Bennett, R., CARMONA, E., Korbacz, A., Lawrence, C., Cameron, E., Bateman, A., WATSON, P., Allanson, J., duToit, P., MANLY, T.
Reference:
BMC Medicine, 21(1):445
Year of publication:
2023
CBU number:
8941
Abstract:
Background Acquired brain injury (ABI) is linked to increased depression risk. Existing therapies for depression in ABI (e.g., cognitive behavioural therapy) have mixed efficacy. Behavioural activation (BA), an intervention that encourages engaging in positively reinforcing activities, shows promise. The primary aims were to assess feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy of two 8-week BA groups. Methods Adults (≥ 18 years) recruited from local ABI services, charities, and self-referral via social media were randomised to condition. The Activity Planning group (AP; "traditional" BA) trained participants to plan reinforcing activities over 8 weeks. The Activity Engagement group (AE; "experiential" BA) encouraged engagement in positive activities within session only. Both BA groups were compared to an 8-week Waitlist group (WL). The primary outcomes, feasibility and acceptability, were assessed via recruitment, retention, attendance, and qualitative feedback on groups. The secondary outcome, potential efficacy, was assessed via blinded assessments of self-reported activity levels, depression, and anxiety (at pre- and post-intervention and 1 month follow-up) and were compared across trial arms. Data were collected in-person and remotely due to COVID-19. Results N = 60 participants were randomised to AP (randomised n = 22; total n = 29), AE (randomised n = 22; total n = 28), or re-randomised following WL (total n = 16). Whether in-person or remote, AP and AE were rated as similarly enjoyable and helpful. In exploring efficacy, 58.33% of AP members had clinically meaningful activity level improvements, relative to 50% AE and 38.5% WL. Both AP and AE groups had depression reductions relative to WL, but only AP participants demonstrated anxiety reductions relative to AE and WL. AP participants noted benefits of learning strategies to increase activities and learning from other group members. AE participants valued social discussion and choice in selecting in-session activities. Conclusions Both in-person and remote group BA were feasible and acceptable in ABI. Though both traditional and experiential BA may be effective, these may have different mechanisms. OSF: https://osf.io/e5btr
URL:
Data for this project is available at: https://osf.io/e5btr


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