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Our publication database contains 7638 publications dating back to 1943. You can browse some of the most recently added entries below, or you can:

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Recently Added Publications


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Direct and indirect links between children’s socio-economic status and education: pathways via mental health, attitude, and cognition
Authors:
DALMAIJER, E., BIGNARDI, G., ANWYL-IRVINE, A., SIUGZDAITE, R. SMITH, T., UH, S., Johnson, A., ASTLE, D.
Reference:
Current Psychology (2021)
Year of publication:
2021
CBU number:
8748
Abstract:
A child’s socio-economic environment can profoundly affect their development. While existing literature focusses on simplified metrics and pair-wise relations between few variables, we aimed to capture complex interrelationships between several relevant domains using a broad assessment of 519 children aged 7–9 years. Our analyses comprised three multivariate techniques that complimented each other, and worked at different levels of granularity. First, an exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis followed by varimax rotation) revealed that our sample varied along continuous dimensions of cognition, attitude and mental health (from parallel analysis); with potentially emerging dimensions speed and socio-economic status (passed Kaiser’s criterion). Second, k-means cluster analysis showed that children did not group into discrete phenotypes. Third, a network analysis on the basis of bootstrapped partial correlations (confirmed by both cross-validated LASSO and multiple comparisons correction of binarised connection probabilities) uncovered how our developmental measures interconnected: educational outcomes (reading and maths fluency) were directly related to cognition (short-term memory, number sense, processing speed, inhibition). By contrast, mental health (anxiety and depression symptoms) and attitudes (conscientiousness, grit, growthmindset) showed indirect relationships with educational outcomes via cognition. Finally, socio-economic factors (neighbourhood deprivation, family affluence) related directly to educational outcomes, cognition, mental health, and even grit. In sum, cognition is a central cog through which mental health and attitude relate to educational outcomes. However, through
URL:
Data available, click to request
Evidence and implications of abnormal predictive coding in dementia
Authors:
Kocagoncu, E., Kilmovich,-Gray, A., HUGHES, L.E., ROWE, J.B.
Reference:
Brain
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8747
Abstract:
The diversity of cognitive deficits and neuropathological processes associated with dementias has encouraged divergence in pathophysiological explanations of disease. Here, we review an alternative framework that emphasises convergent critical features of cognitive pathophysiology. Rather than the loss of "memory centres" or "language centres", or singular neurotransmitter systems, cognitive deficits are interpreted in terms of aberrant predictive coding in hierarchical neural networks. This builds on advances in normative accounts of brain function, specifically the Bayesian integration of beliefs and sensory evidence in which hierarchical predictions and prediction errors underlie memory, perception, speech and behaviour. We describe how analogous impairments in predictive coding in parallel neurocognitive systems can generate diverse clinical phenomena, including the characteristics of dementias. The review presents evidence from behavioural and neurophysiological studies of perception, language, memory and decision-making. The re-formulation of cognitive deficits in terms of predictive coding has several advantages. It brings diverse clinical phenomena into a common framework; it aligns cognitive and movement disorders; and it makes specific predictions on cognitive physiology that support translational and experimental medicine studies. The insights into complex human cognitive disorders from the predictive coding framework may therefore also inform future therapeutic strategies.
URL:
Validation of the Child-version of the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire of repetitive negative thinking in young people with diagnosed depressive and anxiety disorders
Authors:
HITCHCOCK, C., Brown, R., Cobham, V.
Reference:
British Journal of Clinical Psychology
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8746
Abstract:
This paper sought to provide the first validation of a transdiagnostic measure of repetitive negative thinking – the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire- Child version (PTQ-C) – in young people diagnosed with anxiety and depressive disorders. Participants (N=114) were 11-17 year-olds with complex and comorbid presentations seeking treatment through Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. Confirmatory factor analyses best supported a three-factor model for the PTQ-C, however, hypotheses of both perfect and close fit were rejected, and a subsequent bifactor model suggested minimal unique variance for each subscale. Results demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent validity and divergent validity for the total score and three PTQ-S subscales; core characteristics, perceived unproductiveness and consumed mental capacity of negative repetitive thinking. PTQ-C scores did not account for additional variance in anxiety symptoms once worry was considered, indicating that retention of a content specific measure may be warranted in clinical samples. Findings emphasise the importance of validating clinically relevant measures which were developed with subclinical populations in samples with diagnosed mental health disorders.
URL:
Data available, click to request
Spatially adjacent regions in posterior cingulate cortex represent familiar faces at different levels of complexity
Authors:
RAJIMEHR, R., Afzalian, N.
Reference:
Journal of Neuroscience
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8745
Data available, click to request
The Effect of Ambient Sounds on Decision-Making and Heart Rate Variability in Autism.
Authors:
Bellamy, R., Ring, H., WATSON, P., Kemp, A., Munn, G., Clare, I.
Reference:
Autism, 25(8):2209-2222
Year of publication:
2021
CBU number:
8744
Abstract:
Autistic people report difficulties with the demands of a neurotypical world, but little research has assessed the impact of the environment on such difficulties. We investigated the effect of ambient sounds on decision-making and heart rate variability. Adults without intellectual disability were allocated to autistic (n = 38) or neurotypical (n = 37) groups matched on age, intellectual functioning and self-reported gender. Participants completed a shopping decision-making task in three randomly ordered sound conditions: no sound, non-social shopping sound (e.g. fridges humming) and social shopping sound (e.g. people talking). Decision-making latency, decision-making consistency, and heart rate variability were measured. Participants also provided qualitative reports of their experiences. Qualitative analyses indicated that autistic participants experienced (1) the non-social and social sound conditions more negatively than the no sound condition and (2) the social sound condition more negatively than neurotypical participants. However, there were no statistically significant differences in decision-making latency, decision-making consistency, or heart rate variability across sound conditions and participant groups. Further research should consider alternative quantitative measures to explore subjective experience to help understand further which aspects of the environment autistic people are sensitive to, in turn, enabling more evidence-based autism-friendly changes to be made.
URL:
A category-selective semantic memory deficit for animate objects in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia
Authors:
HENDERSON, S.
Reference:
Brain Communications, 01 January 2021, 3(4)
Year of publication:
2021
CBU number:
8743
Abstract:
Data are mixed on whether patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia exhibit a category-selective semantic deficit for animate objects. Moreover, there is little consensus regarding the neural substrates of this category-selective semantic deficit, though prior literature has suggested that the perirhinal cortex and the lateral posterior fusiform gyrus may support semantic memory functions important for processing animate objects. In this study, we investigated whether patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia exhibited a category-selective semantic deficit for animate objects in a word-picture matching task, controlling for psycholinguistic features of the stimuli, including frequency, familiarity, typicality, and age of acquisition. We investigated the neural bases of this category selectivity by examining its relationship with cortical atrophy in two primary regions of interest: bilateral perirhinal cortex and lateral posterior fusiform gyri. We analyzed data from 20 patients with semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (mean age = 64 years, S.D. = 6.94). For each participant, we calculated an animacy index score to denote the magnitude of the category-selective semantic deficit for animate objects. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a main effect of animacy (β  =  0.52, t = 4.03, p < 0.001) even after including all psycholinguistic variables in the model, such that animate objects were less likely to be identified correctly relative to inanimate objects. Inspection of each individual patient’s data indicated the presence of a disproportionate impairment in animate objects in most patients. A linear regression analysis revealed a relationship between the right perirhinal cortex thickness and animacy index scores (β = -0.57, t = -2.74, p = 0.015) such that patients who were more disproportionally impaired for animate relative to inanimate objects exhibited thinner right perirhinal cortex. A vertex-wise general linear model analysis restricted to the temporal lobes revealed additional associations between positive animacy index scores (i.e. a disproportionately poorer performance on animate objects) and cortical atrophy in the right perirhinal and entorhinal cortex, superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, and the anterior fusiform gyrus, as well as the left anterior fusiform gyrus. Taken together, our results indicate that a category-selective semantic deficit for animate objects is a characteristic feature of semantic variant primary progressive aphasia that is detectable in most individuals. Our imaging findings provide further support for the role of the right perirhinal cortex and other temporal lobe regions in the semantic processing of animate objects.
URL:
Lesion site and therapy time predict responses to a therapy for anomia after stroke: a prognostic model development study
Authors:
Hope, T., NARDO, D., Holland, R., Ondobaka, S., Akkad, H., Price, C,. Leff, A., Crinion, J.
Reference:
Scientific Reports, 11, 18572
Year of publication:
2021
CBU number:
8742
Abstract:
Stroke is a leading cause of disability, and language impairments (aphasia) after stroke are both common and particularly feared. Most stroke survivors with aphasia exhibit anomia (difficulties with naming common objects), but while many therapeutic interventions for anomia have been proposed, treatment effects are typically much larger in some patients than others. Here, we asked whether that variation might be more systematic, and even predictable, than previously thought. 18 patients, each at least 6 months after left hemisphere stroke, engaged in a computerised treatment for their anomia over a 6-week period. Using only: (a) the patients’ initial accuracy when naming (to-be) trained items; (b) the hours of therapy that they devoted to the therapy; and (c) whole-brain lesion location data, derived from structural MRI; we developed Partial Least Squares regression models to predict the patients’ improvements on treated items, and tested them in cross-validation. Somewhat surprisingly, the best model included only lesion location data and the hours of therapy undertaken. In cross-validation, this model significantly out-performed the null model, in which the prediction for each patient was simply the mean treatment effect of the group. This model also made promisingly accurate predictions in absolute terms: the correlation between empirical and predicted treatment response was 0.62 (95% CI 0.27, 0.95). Our results indicate that individuals’ variation in response to anomia treatment are, at least somewhat, systematic and predictable, from the interaction between where and how much lesion damage they have suffered, and the time they devoted to the therapy.
URL:
Data available, click to request
Does Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) in motor cortex reflect compensation?
Authors:
KNIGHTS, E., Morcom, A., HENSON, R.N.
Reference:
Journal of Neuroscience
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8741
Abstract:
Older adults tend to display greater brain activation in the non-dominant hemisphere during even basic sensorimotor responses. It is debated whether this Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) reflects a compensatory mechanism. Across two independent fMRI experiments involving adult-lifespan human samples (N = 586 and N = 81; approximately half female) who performed right hand finger responses, we distinguished between these hypotheses using behavioural and multivariate Bayes (MVB) decoding approaches. Standard univariate analyses replicated a HAROLD pattern in motor cortex, but in- and out-of-scanner behavioural results both demonstrated evidence against a compensatory relationship, in that reaction time measures of task performance in older adults did not relate to ipsilateral motor activity. Likewise, MVB showed that this increased ipsilateral activity in older adults did not carry additional information, and if anything, combining ipsilateral with contralateral activity patterns reduced action decoding in older adults (at least in Experiment 1). These results contradict the hypothesis that HAROLD is compensatory, and instead suggest that the age-related, ipsilateral hyper-activation is non-specific, in line with alternative hypotheses about age-related reductions in neural efficiency/differentiation or inter-hemispheric inhibition. Analysis scripts: https://github.com/ethanknights/HAROLD-MVB Behavioural & extracted-ROI datasets: https://osf.io/seuz5/
URL:
Data available, click to request
Precise topology of adjacent domain-general and sensory-biased regions in the human brain
Authors:
ASSEM, M., SHASHIDHARA, S., Glasser, M.F., DUNCAN, J.D.
Reference:
Cerebral Cortex
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8740
Abstract:
Recent functional MRI studies identified sensory-biased regions across much of the association cortices and cerebellum. However, their anatomical relationship to multiple-demand (MD) regions, characterized as domain-general due to their co-activation during multiple cognitive demands, remains unclear. For a better anatomical delineation, we used multimodal MRI techniques of the Human Connectome Project to scan subjects performing visual and auditory versions of a working memory (WM) task. The contrast between hard and easy WM showed strong domain generality, with essentially identical patterns of cortical, subcortical and cerebellar MD activity for visual and auditory materials. In contrast, modality preferences were shown by contrasting easy WM with baseline; most MD regions showed visual preference while immediately adjacent to cortical MD regions, there were interleaved regions of both visual and auditory preference. The results may exemplify a general motif whereby domain-specific regions feed information into and out of an adjacent, integrative MD core.
Evidence for a pervasive autobiographical memory impairment in Logopenic Progressive Aphasia
Authors:
RAMANAN, S., Foxe, D., El-Omar, H., Ahmed, R.M., Hodges, J.R., Piguet, O., Irish, M.
Reference:
Neurobiology of Aging
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8739
Abstract:
Although characterized primarily as a language disorder, mounting evidence indicates episodic amnesia in Logopenic Progressive Aphasia (LPA). Whether such memory disturbances extend to information encoded pre-disease onset remains unclear. To address this question, we examined autobiographical memory in 10 LPA patients, contrasted with 18 typical amnestic Alzheimer’s disease and 16 healthy Control participants. A validated assessment, the Autobiographical Interview, was employed to explore autobiographical memory performance across the lifespan under free and probed recall conditions. Relative to Controls, LPA patients showed global impairments across all time periods for free recall, scoring at the same level as disease-matched cases of Alzheimer’s Disease. Importantly, these retrieval deficits persisted in LPA, even when structured probing was provided, and could not be explained by overall level of language disruption or amount of information generated during autobiographical narration. Autobiographical memory impairments in LPA related to grey matter intensity decrease in predominantly posterior parietal brain regions implicated in memory retrieval. Together, our results suggest that episodic memory disturbances may be an under-appreciated clinical feature of LPA.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.


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