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Data Repository


This page shows all 300 data sets currently available in our Data repository

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Decentering as a core component in the psychological treatment and prevention of youth anxiety and depression: A narrative review and insight report
Authors:
BENNETT, M.P., KNIGHT,R., PATEL, S., LEE, T., DUNNING, D., Barnhoferm T., Smith, P., Kuyken, W., Ford, T., DALGLEISH, T.
Reference:
Decentering is a ubiquitous therapeutic concept featuring in multiple schools of psychological intervention and science. It describes an ability to notice to day-to-day psychological stressors (negative thoughts, feelings and memories) from an objective self-perspective and without perseverating on the themes they represent. Thus, decentering dampens the impact and distress associated with psychological stressors that can otherwise increase mental ill health in vulnerable individuals. Importantly, the strengthening of decentering-related abilities has been flagged as a core component of psychological interventions that treat and prevent anxiety and depression. We provide an in-depth review evidence of the salutary effects of decentering with a special focus on youth mental health. This is because adolescence is a critical window for the development of psychopathology but is often under-represented in this research line. A narrative synthesis is presented that integrates and summarises findings on a range of decentering-related abilities. Section 1 reviews extant conceptualizations of decentering and data-driven approaches to characterise its characteristic. A novel definition is then offered to guide future empirical research. Section 2 overviews laboratory-based research into the development of decentering as well as its relationship with anxiety and depression. Section 3 examines the role decentering-related skills play in psychological interventions for anxiety and depression. Critically, we review evidence that treatment-related increases in decentering predict latter reductions in anxiety and depression severity. Each section highlights important areas for future research. The report concludes by addressing the vital questions of whether, how, why and when decentering alleviates youth anxiety and depression.
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8649
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
An Efficient, Accurate and Clinically-Applicable Index of Content Word Fluency in Aphasia
Authors:
Alyahy, R.S.W., Conroy, P., HALAI, A.D., LAMBON RALPH, M.A.
Reference:
Aphasiology
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8648
Abstract:
Background: Despite the clinical importance of assessing the efficiency and accuracy of fluency in terms of content words production during connected speech, assessments based on discourse tasks are very time-consuming and thus not clinically feasible. Aims: (1) Examine the relationship between single-word naming and word retrieval during discourse production. (2) Investigate the relationship between word retrieval and content word fluency derived from a simple versus naturalistic discourse tasks. (3) Develop and validate an efficient and accurate index of content word fluency that is clinically viable. Methods: Two discourse tasks (simple picture description and naturalistic storytelling narrative) were collected from 46 participants with post-stroke aphasia, and 20 age/education matched neuro-typical controls. Each discourse sample was fully transcribed and content analysis was applied on each sample to measure word retrieval and content word fluency. Three single-word naming tasks were also administered to each participant with aphasia. Results: Correlational analyses between single-word naming and word retrieval in connected speech revealed weak/moderate relationships. Conversely, strong correlations were found between measures derived from simple picture description against naturalistic storytelling discourse tasks. Moreover, we derived a novel, transcription-less index of content word fluency from the discourse samples from an independent group (neuro-typical controls), and then we validated this index across two discourse tasks in the tested group (persons with aphasia). Correlation and regression analyses revealed extremely strong relationships between participants’ (neuro-typical controls and persons with aphasia) scores on the novel index and measures of content word fluency derived from the formal transcription and analyses of discourse samples, indicating high accuracy and validity of the new index. Conclusions: Simple picture description rather than picture naming provides a better estimate of word retrieval in naturalistic connected speech. The novel developed index is transcription-less and can be implemented online to provide an accurate and efficient measure of content word fluency. Thus, it is viable during clinical practice for assessment purposes, and possibly as an outcome measure to monitor therapy effectiveness, which can also be used in randomised clinical trials.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Concurrent neuroimaging and neurostimulation reveals a causal role for dlPFC in coding of task-relevant information
Authors:
JACKSON, J., Feredoes, E., Rich, A.N., Lindner, M. WOOLGAR, A.
Reference:
Communications Biology
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8647
Abstract:
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is proposed to drive brain-wide focus by biasing processing in favour of task-relevant information. A longstanding debate concerns whether this is achieved through enhancing processing of relevant information and/or by inhibiting irrelevant information. To address this, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during fMRI, and tested for causal changes in information coding. Participants attended to one feature, whilst ignoring another feature, of a visual object. If dlPFC is necessary for facilitation, disruptive TMS should decrease coding of attended features. Conversely, if dlPFC is crucial for inhibition, TMS should increase coding of ignored features. Here we show that TMS decreases coding of relevant information across frontoparietal cortex, and the impact is significantly stronger than any effect on irrelevant information, which is not statistically detectable. This provides causal evidence for a specific role of dlPFC in enhancing task-relevant representations and demonstrates the cognitive-neural insights possible with concurrent TMS-fMRI-MVPA The ethical approval for this study does not allow us to share raw data openly. Source data for Figures 3a-b, 5a-f, 6a-c are available on Open Science Framework (https://osf.io.r3g7c/). The code used to analyse this study is also available on Open Science Framework at the same link.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
The Panoramic ECAP Method: Estimating Patient‑Specifc Patterns of Current Spread and Neural Health in Cochlear Implant Users
Authors:
GARCIA, C., GOEHRING, T., COSENTINO, S., Turner, R.E., DEEKS, J.M., Brochier, K., Rughooputh, T., Bance, M., CARLYLON, R.P.
Reference:
The Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8646
Abstract:
The knowledge of patient-specifc neural excitation patterns from cochlear implants (CIs) can provide important information for optimizing effcacy and improving speech perception outcomes. The Panoramic ECAP (‘PECAP’) method (Cosentino et al. 2015) uses forward-masked electrically evoked compound action-potentials (ECAPs) to estimate neural activation patterns of CI stimulation. The algorithm requires ECAPs be measured for all combinations of probe and masker electrodes, exploiting the fact that ECAP amplitudes refect the overlapping excitatory areas of both probes and maskers. Here we present an improved version of the PECAP algorithm that imposes biologically realistic constraints on the solution, that, unlike the previous version, produces detailed estimates of neural activation patterns by modelling current spread and neural health along the intracochlear electrode array and is capable of identifying multiple regions of poor neural health. The algorithm was evaluated for reliability and accuracy in three ways: (1) computer-simulated current-spread and neural-health scenarios, (2) comparisons to psychophysical correlates of neural health and electrode-modiolus distances in human CI users, and (3) detection of simulated neural ‘dead’ regions (using forward masking) in human CI users. The PECAP algorithm reliably estimated the computer-simulated scenarios. A moderate but significant negative correlation between focused thresholds and the algorithm’s neural-health estimates was found, consistent with previous literature. It also correctly identified simulated ‘dead’ regions in all seven CI users evaluated. The revised PECAP algorithm provides an estimate of neural excitation patterns in CIs that could be used to inform and optimize CI stimulation strategies for individual patients in clinical settings.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Educational attainment does not influence brain aging
Authors:
Nyberg, L., Magnussen, F., Lundquist, A., Baare, W., Bartrés- Faz, D., Bertram, L., Boraxbekk, C.J., Brandmaier, A.M., Drevon, C.A., Ebmeier, K., Ghisletta, P., HENSON, R.N., Junqué, C., KIEVIT, R., Kleemeyer, M., Knight, E., Kühn, S., Lindenberger, U., Penninx, B., Pudas, S., Sørensen, O., Vaqué-Alcázar, L., Walhovd, K.B. & Fjell, A.M.
Reference:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8645
Abstract:
Education has been related to various advantageous lifetime outcomes. Here, using longitudinal structural MRI data (4422 observations), we tested the influential hypothesis that higher education translates into slower rates of brain aging. Cross-sectionally, education was modestly associated with regional cortical volume. However, despite marked mean atrophy in the cortex and hippocampus, education did not influence rates of change. The results were replicated across two independent samples. Our findings challenge the view that higher education slows brain aging.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Executive function and high ambiguity perceptual discrimination contribute to individual differences in mnemonic discrimination in older adults
Authors:
Gellersen, H., Trelle, A., HENSON, R. Simons, J.
Reference:
Cognition
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8644
Abstract:
Mnemonic discrimination deficits, or impaired ability to discriminate between similar events in memory, is a hallmark of cognitive aging, characterised by a stark age-related increase in false recognition. While individual differences in mnemonic discrimination have gained attention due to potential relevance for early detection of Alzheimer’s disease, our understanding of the component processes that contribute to variability in task per-formance across older adults remains limited. The present investigation explores the roles of representational quality, indexed by perceptual discrimination of objects and scenes with overlapping features, and strategic retrieval ability, indexed by standardised tests of executive function, to mnemonic discrimination in a large cohort of older adults (N=124). We took an individual differences approach and characterised the contributions of these factors to performance under Forced Choice (FC) and Yes/No (YN) recognition memory formats, which place different demands on strategic retrieval. Performance in both test formats declined with age. Accounting for age, individual differences in FC memory performance were best explained by perceptual discrimination score, whereas YN memory performance was best explained by executive functions. A linear mixed model and dominance analyses confirmed the relatively greater importance of perceptual discrimination over executive functioning for FC performance, while the opposite was true for YN. These findings highlight parallels between perceptual and mnemonic discrimination in aging, the importance of considering demands on executive func-tions in the context of mnemonic discrimination, and the relevance of test format for modulating the impact of these factors on performance in older adults.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Lifting the lid on impact and peer review
Authors:
Clift, J., Cooke, A., Isles, A., Dalley, J., HENSON, R.
Reference:
Brain and Neuroscience Advances
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8643
Abstract:
Brain and Neuroscience Advances has grown in tandem with the British Neuroscience Association’s campaign to build Credibility in Neuroscience, which encourages actions and initiatives aimed at improving reproducibility, reliability and openness. This commitment to credibility impacts not only what the Journal publishes, but also how it operates. With that in mind, the Editorial Board sought the views of the neuroscience community on the peer review process, and on how they should respond to the Journal Impact Factor that will be assigned to Brain and Neuroscience Advances. In this editorial, we present the results of a survey of neuroscience researchers conducted in the autumn of 2020 and discuss the broader implications of our findings for the Journal and the neuroscience community.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Joint recording of EEG and audio signals in hyperscanning and pseudo-hyperscanning experiments
Authors:
PEREZ, A., Monahan, P.J., LAMBON-RALPH, M.A.
Reference:
MethodsX
Year of publication:
-
CBU number:
8642
Abstract:
Hyperscanning is an emerging technique that allows for the study of brain similarities between interacting individ-uals. This methodology has powerful implications for understanding the neural basis of joint actions, such as con-versation; however, it also demands precise time-locking between the different brain recordings and sensory stimulation. Such precise timing, nevertheless, is often difficult to achieve. Recording auditory stimuli jointly with the ongoing high temporal resolution neurophysiological signal presents an effective way to control timing asyn-chronies offline between the digital trigger sent by the stimulation program and the actual onset of the auditory stimulus delivered to participants via speakers/headphones. This configuration is particularly challenging in hyperscanning setups due to the general increased complexity of the methodology. In other designs using the related technique of pseudo-hyperscanning, combined brain-auditory recordings are also a highly desirable fea-ture, since reliable offline synchronisation can be performed by using the shared audio signal. Here, we describe two hardware configurations wherein the real-time delivered auditory stimulus is recorded jointly with ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings. Specifically, we describe and provide customized implementations for joint EEG-audio recording in hyperscanning and pseudo-hyperscanning paradigms using hardware and software from Brain Products GmbH. • Joint EEG-audio recording configuration for hyperscanning and pseudo-hyperscanning paradigms. • Near zero-latency playback of auditory signal captured by a microphone. • Precise alignment between EEG and auditory stimulation.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Locus coeruleus integrity and the effect of atomoxetine on response inhibition in Parkinson’s disease
Authors:
O’Callaghan, C., HEXEMANS, F.H., Ye, R., Rua, C., Jones, S., Murley, A.G., Holland, N., Regenthal, R., Tsvetanov, K.A., Wolpe, N., Barker, R.A., Williams-Gray, C.H., Robbins, T.W., Passamonti, l., ROWE, J.B.
Reference:
Brain
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8641
Abstract:
Cognitive decline is a common feature of Parkinson’s disease, and many of these cognitive deficits fail to respond to dopaminergic therapy. Therefore, targeting other neuromodulatory systems represents an important therapeutic strategy. Among these, the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline system has been extensively implicated in response inhibition deficits. Restoring noradrenaline levels using the noradrenergic reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine can improve response inhibition in some patients with Parkinson’s disease, but there is considerable heterogeneity in treatment response. Accurately predicting the patients who would benefit from therapies targeting this neurotransmitter system remains a critical goal, in order to design the necessary clinical trials with stratified patient selection to establish the therapeutic potential of atomoxetine. Here, we test the hypothesis that integrity of the noradrenergic locus coeruleus explains the variation in improvement of response inhibition following atomoxetine. In a double-blind placebo-controlled randomised crossover design, 19 people with Parkinson’s disease completed an acute psychopharmacological challenge with 40 mg of oral atomoxetine or placebo. A stop-signal task was used to measure response inhibition, with stop-signal reaction times obtained through hierarchical Bayesian estimation of an ex-Gaussian race model. Twenty-six control subjects completed the same task without undergoing the drug manipulation. In a separate session, patients and controls underwent ultra-high field 7T imaging of the locus coeruleus using a neuromelanin-sensitive magnetisation transfer sequence. The principal result was that atomoxetine improved stop-signal reaction times in those patients with lower locus coeruleus integrity. This was in the context of a general impairment in response inhibition, as patients on placebo had longer stop-signal reaction times compared to controls. We also found that the caudal portion of the locus coeruleus showed the largest neuromelanin signal decrease in the patients compared to controls. Our results highlight a link between the integrity of the noradrenergic locus coeruleus and response inhibition in Parkinson’s disease patients. Furthermore, they demonstrate the importance of baseline noradrenergic state in determining the response to atomoxetine. We suggest that locus coeruleus neuromelanin imaging offers a marker of noradrenergic capacity that could be used to stratify patients in trials of noradrenergic therapy and to ultimately inform personalised treatment approaches.
Data available, click to request
The neural bases of resilient semantic system: Evidence of variable neuro-displacement in cognitive systems
Authors:
LAMBON RALPH, M.
Reference:
Brain Structure and Function
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8640
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.


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