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Emily Holmes
Programme leader (2012-2016), Emotion group

Visiting Scientist (Honorary Appointment)
01223 355294

In the Emotional Disorders and Mental Imagery programme we investigate three areas:

  • Psychological trauma
  • Depressed mood
  • Bipolar disorder

For details on the above, follow this link

For list of publications (with links to PDFs), click "...more" below


Publications (in date order)

Publications were last updated August 2017. Visit Emily Holmes' Karolinska Institutet profile page for a more up to date list


159. van Bentum, J., S. Sijbrandij, M., Huibers, M. J. H., Huisman, A., Arntz, A., Holmes, E. A. & Kerkhof, A. J. F. M. (2017) Treatment of intrusive suicidal imagery using eye movements. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health: Special Issue ‘From Understanding Suicide Risk to Preventing Suicide’, 14(714). 1-14. doi:10.3390/ijerph14070714. (view article)

158. McEvoy, P. M., Moulds, M. L. Grisham, J. R., Holmes, E A. Moscovitch, D. A., Hendrie, D., Saulsman, L. M., Lipp, O. V., Kane, R. T., Rapee, R. M., Hyett, M. P. & Erceg-Hurn, D. M. (2017). Assessing the efficacy of imagery-enhanced cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 60. 34-41. doi: 10.1016/j.cct.2017.06.010. (view article)

157. Slofstra, C., Eisma, M. C., Holmes, E. A., Bockting, C. L. H., & Nauta, M. H. (2017). Rethinking a negative event: the influence of verbal versus imagery-based processing on affective impact of aversive autobiographical memory recall. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 8(82). 1-11. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00082. (view article)

156. Lau-Zhu, A., Holmes, E. A., Butterfield, S., & Holmes, J. (2017). Selective association between Tetris game play and visuospatial working memory: a preliminary investigation. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31(4). 438-445/ doi: 10.1002/acp.3339

155. Horsch, A., Vial, Y., Favrod, C. Harari, M. M., Blackwell, S. E., Watson, P., Iyadurai, L., Bonsall, M. B., & Holmes, E. A. (2017)  Reducing intrusive traumatic memories after emergency Caesarean section: a proof-of-principle randomized controlled study. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 94. 36-47. doi: (view article)

154. Iyadurai, L., Blackwell, S. B., Meiser-Stedman, R., Watson, P. C., Bonsall, M. B., Geddes, J. R., Nobre, A.C. &. Holmes, E. A. (2017). Preventing intrusive memories after trauma via a brief intervention involving Tetris computer game play in the emergency department: a proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial. Molecular Psychiatry. doi: 10.1038/mp.2017.23. (view article)

153. Blackwell, S. E. & Holmes, E. A. (2017) Brightening the day with flashes of positive mental imagery: a case example in depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session [Special issue], 73(5). 579-589. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22455. (view article)

152. Holmes, E. A., Ghaderi, A., Eriksson, E., Lauri, K. O., Kukacka, O. M., Mamish, M., James, E. L. & Visser, R. M. (2017). “I can’t concentrate”: A feasibility study with young refugees in Sweden on developing science-driven interventions for intrusive memories related to trauma. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 45(2), 97-109. doi: (view article)

151. Ji, J. L., & Holmes, E. A. & Blackwell, S. E., (2017). Seeing light at the end of the tunnel: positive prospective mental imagery and optimism in depression. Psychiatry Research, 247, 155-162. doi: (view article)


150. Di Simplicio, M., Renner, F., Blackwell, S. E., Mitchell, H., Stratford, H., Watson, P., Meyers, N., Nobre, A., Lau-Zhu, A., Holmes, E. A. (2016) An investigation of mental imagery in bipolar disorder: exploring “the mind’s eye”. Bipolar Disorders, 18. 669-689. doi: 10.1111/bdi.12453. (view article)

149. Schäfer, J., Naumann, E., Holmes, E. A., Tuschen-Caffier, B., & Samson, A. C. (2016). Emotion regulation strategies in depressive and anxiety symptoms in youth: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(2).261-276. doi, 10.1007/s10964-016-0585-0.

148. Ng, R. M. K., Di Simplicio, M., McManus, F., Kennerley, H., & Holmes, E. A. (2016) Flash-forwards’ and suicidal ideation: a prospective investigation of mental imagery, entrapment and defeat in a cohort from the Hong Kong Mental Morbidity Survey. Psychiatry Research, 246. 453-460. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.10.018. (view article)

147. Ji, J. L., Burnett Heyes, S., MacLeod, C., & Holmes, E. A. (2016). Emotional mental imagery as simulation of reality: fear and beyond. A tribute to Peter Lang. Behavior Therapy. 47(5), 702-719. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2015.11.004. (view article)

146. James, E. L., Lau-Zhu, A., Tickle, H., Horsch, A., & Holmes, E. A. (2016) Playing the computer game Tetris prior to viewing traumatic film material and subsequent intrusive memories: examining proactive interference. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 53. 25-33doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.11.004. (view article)

145. Ozsivadjian, A. Absoud, M. Southcott, J. and Holmes, E. A. (2016) Anxious imagery in children with and without autism spectrum disorder: An investigation into occurrence, content, features and implications for therapy. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. doi: 10.1007/s10803-016-2840-3. [online first] (view article)

144. Burnett Heyes, S., Pictet, A., Mitchell, H., Raeder, S. M., Lau, J. Y. F., Holmes, E. A., & Blackwell, S. E. (2016). Mental imagery-based training to modify mood and cognitive bias in adolescents: effects of valence and perspective. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1-16. doi: 10.1007/s10608-016-9795-8 [online first] (view article)

143. Slofstra, C., Nauta, M. H., Holmes, E. A., & Bockting, C. L. H. (2016) Imagery Rescripting: the impact of conceptual and perceptual changes on aversive autobiographical memories. PloS ONE, 11(8), e0160235. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0160235 (view article)

142. Bilderbeck, A. C., Atkinson, L., McMahon, H., Voysey, M., Simon, J., Price, J., Rendell, J., Geddes, J. R., Holmes, E. A. & Goodwin, G. M. (2016). Psychoeducation and online mood tracking for patients with bipolar disorder: A randomised controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 205. 245-251. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.06.064 (view article)

141. James, E. L., Lau-Zhu, A., Clark, I. A., Visser, R. M., Hagenaars, M. A., & Holmes, E. A. (2016) The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma: intrusive memories and beyond. Clinical Psychology Review, 47. 106-142. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2016.04.010. (view article)

140. Renner, F., Ji, J. L., Pictet, A., Holmes, E. A., & Blackwell, S. E. (2016). Effects of engaging in repeated mental imagery of future positive events on behavioural activation in individuals with major depressive disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research. doi: 10.1007/s10608-016-9776-y (view article)

139. Cortina, M., Stein, A., Kahn, K., Hlungwani, T. M., Holmes, E. A. & Fazel, M. (2016) Cognitive styles and psychological functioning in rural South African students: understanding influences for risk and resilience in the face of chronic adversity. Journal of Adolescence, 46. 38-46. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.01.010. (view article)

138. Holmes, E. A., Blackwell, S. E., Burnett Heyes, S., Renner, F., & Raes, F. (2016) Mental imagery in depression: Phenomenology, potential mechanisms, and treatment implications. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 12, 249-280. doi: 10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-021815-092925. (view article or download a copy of the "chatterbox" oragami model contained within the article)

137. Goodwin, G. M., Haddad, P. M., Ferrier, I. N., Aronson, J. K., Barnes, T., Cipriani, A., Coghill, D. R., Fazel, S., Geddes, J. R., Grunze, H., Holmes, E. A., Howes, O., Hudson, S., Hunt, N., Jones, I., Macmillan, I. C., McAllister-Williams H., Miklowitz D. R., Morriss R., Munafò M., Paton C., Saharkian B. J., Saunders K., Sinclair, J., Taylor, D., Vieta, E., & Young, A. H. (2016) Evidence-based guidelines for treating bipolar disorder: revised third edition recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology. pii: 0269881116636545 [epub ahead of print] (view article)

136. Holmes, E. A., Bonsall, M. B., Hales, S. A., Mitchell, H., Renner, F., Blackwell, S. E., Watson, P., Goodwin, G. M., Di Simplicio, M. (2016). Applications of time-series analysis to mood fluctuations in bipolar disorder to promote treatment innovation: A case series. Translational Psychiatry, 6, e720. doi. 10.1038/tp.2015.207. (view article, and view supplementary information). Key data and code book relating to this publication can be retrieved from the Open Science Framework here


135. Clark, I. A., Holmes, E. A. Woolrich, M. W. & Mackay, C. E. (2015) Intrusive memories to traumatic footage: The neural basis of their encoding and involuntary recall. Psychological Medicine, 46(3), 505-518. doi: 0.1017/S0033291715002007. (view article)

134. Ng, R. M. K, Di Simplicio, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Mental imagery and bipolar disorders: Introducing scope for psychological treatment development? [Editorial]. International Journal of Social Psychiatry,62(2), 110-113. doi: 10.1177/0020764015615905. (view article)

133. Bonsall, M. B., Geddes, J. R., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Bipolar disorder dynamics: affective instabilities, relaxation oscillations and noise. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 12, 1-11. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2015.0670. (view article)

132. Murphy, S. E., O'Donoghue, M. C., Drazich, E. H. S., Blackwell, S. E., Nobre, A. C., & Holmes, E. A. (2015) Imagining a brighter future: the effect of positive imagery training on mood, prospective mental imagery and emotional bias in older adults. Psychiatry Research, 230(1), 36-43. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2015.07.059. (view article)

131. Pearson, J., Naselaris, T., Holmes, E. A., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2015). Mental imagery: functional mechanisms and clinical applications. TRENDS in Cognitive Sciences, 19(10), 590-602. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2015.08.003. (view article)

130. Di Simplicio, M., Holmes, E. A., & Rathbone, C. J. (2015). Self-images in the present and future: role of affect and the bipolar phenotype. Journal of Affective Disorders, 187, 97-100. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.08.042. (view article)

129. Burnett-Heyes, S., Jih, Y-R., Block, P., Hiu, C-F., Holmes, E. A., & Lau, J. (2015). Relationship reciprocation modulates resource allocation in adolescent social networks: Developmental effects. Child Development, 86(5), 1489-1506. (view article)

128. Nelis, S., Holmes, E. A., & Raes, F. (2015). Response styles to positive affect and depression: Concurrent and prospective associations in a community sample. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 39, 480-491. doi: 10.1007/s10608-015-9671-y. (view article)

127. Ng, R. M. K., Burnett Heyes, S., McManus, F., Kennerley, H., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Bipolar risk and mental imagery susceptibility in a representative sample of Chinese adults residing in the community. International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 62(1), 94-103. doi: 10.1177/0020764015597951. (view article)

126. James, E. L., Bonsall, M. B., Hoppitt, L., Tunbridge, E. M., Geddes, J. R., Milton, A. L., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Computer game play reduces intrusive memories of experimental trauma via reconsolidation update mechanisms. Psychological Science, 26(8), 1201-2015. doi: 10.1177/0956797615583071. (view article). Materials and key data for this publication can be retrieved from the Open Science Framework here

125. Porcheret, K., Holmes, E. A., Goodwin, G. M., Foster, R. G., & Wulff, K. (2015). Psychological impact of an analogue traumatic event reduced by sleep deprivation. Sleep, 38(7), 1017-1025. doi: (view article)

124. Nelis, S., Holmes, E. A., Palmieri, R., Bellelli, G., & Raes, F. (2015). Thinking back about a positive event: The impact of processing style on positive affect. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 6(3), 1-13. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2015.00003. (view article)

123. Williams, A. D., O'Moore, K., Blackwell, S. E., Smith, J., Holmes, E. A., & Andrews, G. (2015). Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT): A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 178. 131-141. (view article)

122. Rathbone, C. J., Holmes, E. A., Murphy, S. E., & Ellis, J. A. (2015) Autobiographical memory and well-being in aging: the central role of semantic self-images. Consciousness and Cognition, 33. 422-431, doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2015.02.017. (view article)

121. Blackwell, S. E., Browning, M., Mathews, A., Pictet, A., Welch, J., Davies, J., Watson, P., Geddes, J. R. & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Positive imagery-based cognitive bias modification as a web-based treatment for depressed adults: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Psychological Science, 3(1), 91-111. doi:10.1177/2167702614560746. (view article)


120. Murphy, S. E., Braithwaite, E., Hubbard, I., Williams, K., Tindall, E., Holmes, E. A., & Ramchandani, P. G. (2014). Salivary cortisol response to infant distress in pregnant women with depressive symptoms. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 18(2), 247-253. doi:10.1007/s00737-014-0473-0. (view article)

119. Clark, I. A., Mackay, C. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2014). Low emotional response to traumatic footage is associated with an absence of analogue flashbacks: An individual participant data meta-analysis of 16 trauma film paradigm experiments. Cognition and Emotion, 29(4), 702-713. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2014.926861. (view article)

118. Holmes E. A. (2014) Emily A. Holmes: Award for distinguished scientific early career contributions to psychology. American Psychologist, 69(8),746-748.

117. Stratford, H., Blackwell, S. E., Di Simplicio, M. C., Cooper, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2015). Psychological therapy for anxiety in bipolar spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Clinical Psychological Review, 35, 19-34. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2014.11.002. (view article)

116. Clark, I. A., Niehaus, K. E., Duff, E. P., Di Simplicio, M. C., Clifford, G, D., Smith, S. M., Mackay, C. E., Woolrich, M. W. & Holmes, E. A. (2014). First steps in using machine learning on fMRI data to predict intrusive memories of traumatic film footage. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 62, 37–46. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2014.07.010. (view article)

115. Holmes, E. A., Craske, M. G., & Graybiel, A. M. (2014). A call for mental-health science. Clinicians and neuroscientists must work together to understand and improve psychological treatments. Nature, 511, 287-289. (view article)

114. Almeida, O. P., MacLeod, C., Ford, A., Grafton, B., Hirani, V., Glance, D., & Holmes, E. A. (2014). Cognitive bias modification to prevent depression (COPE): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 15(1), 282. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-15-282. (view article)

113. Fox, E., Mackintosh, B., & Holmes, E. A. (2014). Travellers’ tales in Cognitive Bias Modification research: A commentary on the Special Issue. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38(2), 239-247. doi: 10.1007/s10608-014-9604-1. (view article)

112. Ivins, A., Di Simplicio, M., Close, H., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2014). Mental imagery in bipolar affective disorder versus unipolar depression: Investigating cognitions at times of ‘positive’ mood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 166, 234–242. (view article)

111. Newby, J. M., Lang, T. J., Werner-Seidler, A., Holmes, E. A., & Moulds, M. L. (2014). Alleviating distressing intrusive memories in depression: a comparison between computerised cognitive bias modification and cognitive behavioural education. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 56(100), 60-67. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2014.03.0010005-7967/_ 2014. (view article)

110. Reiser, E. M., Weiss, E. M., Schulter, G., Holmes, E. A., Fink, A., & Papousek, I. (2014). Prefrontal-posterior coupling while observing the suffering of other people, and the development of intrusive memories. Psychophysiology, 51(6), 546–555. doi: 10.1111/psyp.12197. (view article)

109. Malik, A., Goodwin, G. M., Hoppitt, L., & Holmes, E. A. (2014). Hypomanic experience in young adults confers vulnerability to intrusive imagery after experimental trauma: Relevance for bipolar disorder. Clinical Psychological Science. doi: 10.1177/2167702614527433 [epub ahead of print] (view article)

108. Torkan, H., Blackwell, S. E., Holmes, E. A., Kalantari, M., Neshat-Doost, H. T., Maroufi, M., & Talebi, H. (2014). Positive imagery cognitive bias modification in treatment-seeking patients with major depression in Iran: A pilot study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38, 132-145. doi: 10.1007/s10608-014-9598-8. (view article)

107. Nelis, S., Holmes, E. A., Griffith, J. W., & Raes, F. (2014). Mental imagery during daily life: psychometric evaluation of the Spontaneous Use of Imagery Scale (SUIS). Psychologica Belgica, 54(1), 19-32. doi: org/10.5334/ (view article)

106. Moritz, S., Hormann, C. C., Schroder, J., Berger, T., Jacob, G. A., Meyer, B., Holmes, E. A., Spath, C., Hautzinger, M., Lutz, W. & Klein, J. P. (2014). Beyond words: Sensory properties of depressive thoughts. Cognition and Emotion, 28(6), 1047-1056. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2013.868342. (view article)

105. Notebaert, L., Chrystal, J., Clarke, P. J. F., Holmes, E. A., & MacLeod, C. (2014). When we should worry more: using Cognitive Bias Modification to drive adaptive health behaviour. PLoS ONE, 9(1), e85092. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085092. (view article)

104. Rohrbacher, H., Blackwell, S. E., Holmes, E. A., & Reinecke, A. (2014). Optimizing the ingredients for imagery-based interpretation bias modification for depressed mood: Is self-generation more effective than imagination alone? Journal of Affective Disorders, 152-154, 212-218. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.09.013. (view article)


103. Andersson , G., Holmes, E. A., & Carlbring, P. (2013). Lars-Göran Öst. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 42(4), 260-264. doi: 10.1080/16506073.2013.843581

102. Papousek, I., Reiser, E. M., Schulter, G., Fink, A., Holmes, E. A., Niederstatter, H., Hagl, S., Parson, W. & Weiss, E. M. (2013). Serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) and electrocortical responses indicating the sensitivity to negative emotional cues. Emotion, 13(6), 1173-1181. doi: 10.1037/a0033997. (view article)

 101. Williams, A. D., Blackwell, S. E., Holmes, E. A., & Andrews, G. (2013). Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) versus control CBM and iCBT for depression: Study protocol for a parallel-group randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open, 3(e004049). doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004049. (view article)

 100. Boettcher, J., Leek, L., Matson, L., Holmes, E. A., Browning, M., MacLeod, C., Andersson, G. & Carlbring, P. (2013). Internet-based attention modification for social anxiety: A randomised controlled comparison of training towards negative and training towards positive cues. PLoS ONE, 8(9), e71760. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071760. (view article)

99. Browning, M., Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). The use of cognitive bias modification and imagery in the understanding and treatment of depression. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences, 14, 243–260. doi: 10.1007/7854_2012_212 [chapter]

98. Williams, A. D., Blackwell, S. E., Mackenzie, A., Holmes, E. A., & Andrews, G. (2013). Combining imagination and reason in the treatment of depression: A randomized controlled trial of internet-based cognitive bias modification and internet-CBT for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 8(5), 793-799. doi: 10.1037/a0033247. (view article)

97. Clarke, P. J. F., Nanthakumar, S., Notebaert, L., Holmes, E. A., Blackwell, S. E., & MacLeod, C. (2013). Simply imagining sunshine, lollipops and rainbows will not budge the bias: The role of ambiguity in interpretive bias modification. Cognitive Therapy and Research. doi: 10.1007/s10608-013-9564-x. (view article)

96. Telman, M. D., Holmes, E. A., & Lau, J.Y. F. (2013). Modifying adolescent interpretation biases through cognitive training: Effects on negative affect and stress appraisals. Journal of Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 44(5), 602-611. doi: 10.1007/s10578-013-0386-6. (view article)

95. Adams, S., Penton-Voak, I. S., Harmer, C. J., Holmes, E. A., & Munafò, M. R. (2013). Effects of emotion recognition training on mood among individuals with high levels of depressive symptoms: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 14(1), 161-168. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-14-161. (view article)

94. Bourne, C., Mackay, C. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). The neural basis of flashback formation: the impact of viewing trauma. Psychological Medicine, 43(17), 1521-1533. doi: 10.1017/S0033291712002358.

93. Nelis, S., Debeer, E, Holmes, E. A., & Raes, F. (2013). Dysphoric students show higher use of the observer perspective in their retrieval of positive versus negative autobiographical memories. Memory, 21(4), 423-430. doi: 10.1080/09658211.2012.730530.

92. Mathews, A., Ridgeway, V., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). Feels like the real thing: Imagery is both more realistic and emotional than verbal thought. Cognition & Emotion, 27(2), 217-229. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2012.698252.

91. Blackwell, S. E., Rius-Ottenheim, N., Schulte-van Maaren, Y. W. M., Carlier, I. V. E., Middelkoop, V. D., Zitman, F. G., Spinhoven, P., Holmes, E. A., & Giltay, E. J. (2013). Optimism and mental imagery: A possible cognitive marker to promote wellbeing? Psychiatry Research, 206(1), 56-61. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.09.047.

90. Woud, M. L., Postma, P., Holmes, E. A., & Mackintosh, B. (2013). Reducing analogue trauma symptoms by computerized reappraisal training - Considering a cognitive prophlaxis? Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 44(3), 312-315. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2013.01.003.

89. Burnett Hayes, S., Lau, J. Y., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). Mental imagery, emotion and psychopathology across child and adolescent development. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 5, 119-133. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2013.02.004.

88. Clark, I. A., Mackay, C. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). Positive involuntary autobiographical memories: You first have to live them. Consciousness and Cognition, 22(2), 402-406. doi. 10.1016/j.concog.2013.01.008.

87. Pearson, D. G., Deeprose, C., Wallace-Hadrill, S. M. A., Burnett Heyes, S., & Holmes, E. A. (2013). Assessing mental imagery in clinical psychology: A review of imagery measures and a guiding framework. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(1), 1-23. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2012.09.001.


86. Nelis, S., Vanbrabant, K., Holmes, E. A., & Raes, F. (2012). Greater positive affect change after mental imagery than verbal thinking in a student sample. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3(2), 178-188. doi: 10.5127/jep.014811

95. Di Simplicio, M., McInerney, J. E., Goodwin, G. M., Attenburrow, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Revealing the mind’s eye: Bringing (mental) images into psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(12), 1245-1246. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12040499

Relocation to the MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge: September 2012

84. Woud, M. L., Holmes, E. A., Postma, P., Dalgleish, T., & Mackintosh, B. (2012) Ameliorating intrusive memories of distressing experiences using computerized reappraisal training. Emotion, 12(4), 778-784. doi: 10.1037/a0024992

83. Browning, M., Holmes, E. A., Charles, M., Cowen, P. J., & Harmer, C. J. (2012). Using attentional bias modification as a cognitive vaccine against depression. Biological Psychiatry, 72(7), 572-579. doi. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2012.04.014

82. Malik, A., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Contemporary approaches to frequent mood monitoring in bipolar disorder. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3(4), 572-581. doi 10.5127/jep.014311

81. Berna, C., Tracey, I., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). How a better understanding of spontaneous mental imagery linked to pain could enhance imagery-based therapy in chronic pain. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3(2), 258-273. doi:10.5127/jep.017911

80. Bridge, H., Harrold, S., Holmes, E. A., Stokes, M. & Kennard, C. (2012) Vivid visual mental imagery in the absence of the primary visual cortex. Journal of Neurology, 259(6), 1062-1070. doi: 10.1007/s00415-011-6299-z

79. Davies, C., Malik, A., Pictet, A., Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Intrusive mental images after a positive film are dampened by a visuospatial task: Unhelpful in depression but helpful in mania? Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 19(4), 341-351.  doi: 10.1002/cpp.1800

78. Hagenaars, M. A., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Mental Imagery in Psychopathology: Another Step. Editorial for the special issue on Mental Imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychopathology, 3(2), 121-126

77. Lang, T. J., Blackwell, S. E., Harmer, C. J., Davison, P., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Cognitive bias modification using mental imagery for depression: Developing a novel computerized intervention to change negative thinking styles. European Journal of Personality, 26(2), p145-157. doi: 10.1002/per.855

76. Miklowitz, D. J., Price, J., Holmes, E. A., Rendell, J., Bell, S., Budge, K.., Christensen, J., Wallace, J.,  Simon, J., Goodwin, G. M. & Geddes, J. R. (2012). Facilitated Integrated Mood Management for Adults with Bipolar Disorder. Bipolar Disorders, 14(2), 185-197. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2012.00998.x.

75. MacLeod, C., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Cognitive Bias Modification: An intervention approach worth attending to. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 169(2) 118-120. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11111682

74. Crane, C., Shah, D., Barnhofer, T., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Suicidal imagery in a previously depressed community sample. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 19(1), 57-69. doi: 10.1002/cpp.741.

73. Bonsall, M. B., Wallace-Hadrill, S. M. A., Geddes, J. R., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Non-linear time series approaches in characterising mood stability and mood instability in bipolar disorder. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,  279(1730), 916-924. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.1246.

72. Holmes, E. A., James, E. L., Blackwell, S. E. & Hales, S. (2011). “They flash upon that inward eye” The Psychologist, 24(5), 340-343.

71. Deeprose, C., Zhang, S., Dejong, H, Dalgleish, T., & Holmes, E. A. (2012). Imagery in the aftermath of viewing a traumatic film: Using cognitive tasks to modulate the development of involuntary memory. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43(2), 758-764. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2011.10.008


70. Pictet, A., Coughtrey, A. E., Mathews, A., & Holmes, E. A. (2011). Fishing for happiness: The effects of positive imagery on interpretation bias and a behavioral task. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 49(12), 885-891. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2011.10.003.

69. Browning, M., Grol, M., Ly, V., Goodwin, G. M., Holmes, E. A., & Harmer, C. J. (2011). Using an experimental medicine model to explore combination effects of pharmacological and cognitive interventions for depression and anxiety. Neuropsychopharmacology. 36, 2689-2697. doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.15971.

68. Hales, S. A., Deeprose, C., Goodwin, G. M. & Holmes, E. A. (2011) Cognitions in bipolar affective disorder versus unipolar depression: Imaging suicide. Bipolar Disorders. 13(7-8), 651-661. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2011.00954.x

67. Murphy, F. C., Barnard, P. J., Terry, K. A. M., Carthery-Goulart, M. T., & Holmes, E. A. (2011). SenseCam, imagery and bias in memory for wellbeing. Memory, 19(7), 768-777. doi: 0.1080/09658211.2010.55113067.

66. Morina, N., Deeprose, C., Pusowski, C., Schmid, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2011). Prospective mental imagery in patients with major depressive disorder or anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25(8), 1032-1037. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2011.06.012

65. Berna, C., Vincent, K., Moore, J., Tracey, I., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2011) Presence of mental imagery associated with chronic pelvic pain: A pilot study. Pain Medicine, 12(7), 1086-1093. doi: 10.1111/j.1526-4637.2011.01152.x

64. Holmes, E. A., Deeprose, C., Fairburn, C. G., Wallace-Hadrill, S. M. A., Bonsall, M. B., Geddes, J. R., & Goodwin, G. M. (2011). Mood stability versus mood instability in bipolar disorder: a possible role for emotional mental imagery Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(10), 707-713. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2011.06.008.

63. Berna, C., Lang, T. J., Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2011). Developing a measure of interpretation bias for depressed mood: An ambiguous scenarios test. Personality and Individual Differences, 51(3), 349-354. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2011.04.005

62. Deeprose, C., Malik, A., & Holmes, E. A. (2011). Measuring intrusive prospective imagery using the Impact of Future Events Scale (IFES): Psychometric properties and relation to risk for bipolar disorder. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy. 4(2), 186-197. doi: 10.1521/ijct.2011.4.2.187.

61. Moulds, M. L., & Holmes, E. A. (2011). Intrusive imagery in psychopathology: A commentary. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 4(2), 197-207. doi: 10.1521/ijct.2011.4.2.197

60. West, K., Hewstone, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2011). Enhancing imagined contact to reduce prejudice against people with schizophrenia. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 14(3), 407-428. doi:10.1177/1368430210387805.

59. Lothmann, C., Holmes, E. A., Chan, S. W. Y., & Lau, J. (2011). Cognitive bias modification training in adolescents: effects on interpretation biases and mood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(1), 24-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02286.x


58. Holmes, E. A., James, E. L., Kilford, E. J., & Deeprose, C. (2010). Key steps in developing a cognitive vaccine against traumatic flashbacks: visuospatial Tetris versus verbal Pub Quiz. PLoS ONE. 5(11), e13706. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.001370658.

57. Kazantzis, N., Arntz, A. R., Borkovec, T., Holmes, E. A., & Wade, T. (2010). Unresolved issues regarding homework assignments in cognitive and behavioural therapies. Behaviour Change. 27(3) 119-129.

56. Holmes, E. A., & Mathews, A. (2010). Mental imagery in emotion and emotional disorders. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(3), 349–362. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.01.001

55. Berna, C., Leknes, S., Holmes, E. A., Edwards, R. R., Goodwin, G. M., & Tracey, I. (2010). Induction of depressed mood disrupts emotion regulation neurocircuitry and enhances pain unpleasantness. Biological Psychiatry, 67(11), 1083-1090. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.01.014

54. Browning, M., Holmes, E. A., Murphy, S. E., Goodwin, G. M., & Harmer, C. J. (2010). Lateral prefrontal cortex mediates the cognitive modification of attentional bias. Biological Psychiatry, 67(10), 919-925. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.10.031

53. West, K., Hewstone, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2010). Rethinking 'mental health stigma'. European Journal of Public Health, 20(2), 131-132. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckq015

52. Steel, C., Wykes, T., Ruddle, A., Smith, G., Shah, D. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2010). Can we harness computerized cognitive bias modification to treat anxiety in schizophrenia? A first step highlighting the role of mental imagery. Psychiatry Research, 178(3), 451-455. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2010.04.042

51. Browning, M., Holmes, E. A., & Harmer, C. J. (2010). The modification of attentional bias to emotional information: A review of techniques, mechanisms and relevance to emotional disorders. Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, 10(1), 8-20. doi: 10.3758/CABN.10.1.8

50. Brown, R. J., Danquah, A. N., Miles, E., Holmes, E.A, & Poliakoff, E. (2010). Attention to the body in nonclinical somatoform dissociation depends on emotional state. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 69(3), 249-257. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2010.04.010.

49. Bourne, C., Frasquilho, F., Roth, A. D., & Holmes, E. A. (2010). Is it mere distraction? Peri-traumatic verbal tasks can increase analogue flashbacks. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41(3), 316-324. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2010.03.001

48. Blackwell, S. E., & Holmes, E. A. (2010). Modifying interpretation and imagination in clinical depression: A single case series using cognitive bias modification. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24(3), 338-350. doi: 0.1002/acp.1680

47. Deeprose, C., & Holmes, E. A. (2010). An exploration of prospective imagery: The Impact of Future Events Scale. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38(2), 201-209. doi: 10.1017/S1352465809990683

46. Hagenaars, M. A., Brewin, C. R., van Minnen, A., Holmes, E. A., & Hoogduin, K. A. L. (2010). Intrusive images and intrusive thoughts as different phenomena: Two experimental studies. Memory, 18(1), 76-84. doi: 10.1080/09658210903476522

45. Krans, J., Näring, G., Holmes, E. A., & Becker, E. S. (2010). Motion effects on intrusion development. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 11(1), 73-82. doi: 10.1080/15299730903318483


44. Holmes, E. A., Lang, T. J., & Shah, D. M. (2009). Developing interpretation bias modification as a 'cognitive vaccine' for depressed mood: imagining positive events makes you feel better than thinking about them verbally. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 118(1), 76-88. doi: 0.1037/a0012590

43. Holmes, E. A., James, E. L., Coode-Bate, T., & Deeprose, C. (2009). Can Playing the Computer Game 'Tetris' Reduce the Build-up of Flashbacks for Trauma?' A Proposal from Cognitive Science. PLoS ONE, 4(1), e4153. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004153

42. Lang, T. J., Moulds, M. L., & Holmes, E. A. (2009). Reducing depressive intrusions via a computerized cognitive bias modification of appraisals task: Developing a cognitive vaccine. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(2), 139-145.

41. Holmes, E. A., Lang, T. J., & Deeprose, C. (2009). Mental imagery and emotion in treatment across disorders: Using the example of depression. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 38(suppl. 1), 21-28. doi: 10.1080/16506070902980729

40. Krans, J., Näring, G., Holmes, E. A., & Becker, E. S. (2009). ‘I see what you are saying’: Intrusive images from listening to a traumatic verbal report. Journal of Affective Disorder, 24 (1), 134-140.

39. Goodwin, G. M., & Holmes, E. A. (2009). Bipolar anxiety. Revista de Psiquiatria Y Salud Mental, 02(02), 95-98.

38. Hardy, A., Young, K., & Holmes, E. A. (2009). Does trauma memory play a role in the experience of reporting sexual assault during police interviews? An exploratory study. Memory, 17(8), 783-788. doi: 10.1080/09658210903081835

37. Krans, J., Naring, G., Becker, E. S., & Holmes, E. A. (2009). Intrusive Trauma Memory: A review and functional analysis. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23(8), 1076-1088. doi: 10.1002/acp.1611

36. Lilley, S. A., Andrade, J., Turpin, G., Sabin-Farrell, R., & Holmes, E. A. (2009). Visuospatial working memory interference with recollections of trauma. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48(3), 309-321. doi: 10.1348/014466508X398943

35. Krans, J., Naring, G., Holmes, E. A., & Becker, E. S. (2009). Tell me more: Can a memory test reduce analogue traumatic intrusions? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(5), 426-430.


34. Holmes, E. A., Geddes, J. R., Colom, F., & Goodwin, G. M. (2008). Mental imagery as an emotional amplifier: Application to bipolar disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(12), 1251-1258. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2008.09.005

33. Holmes, E. A., Coughtrey, A. E., & Connor, A. (2008). Looking at or through rose-tinted glasses?  Emotion, 8(6), 875-879. doi: 10.1037/a0013617

32. Grey, N., & Holmes, E. A. (2008). "Hotspots" in trauma memories in the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder: A replication. Memory, 16 (7), 788-796. doi: 10.1080/09658210802266446

31. Holmes, E. A., Mathews, A., Mackintosh, B., & Dalgleish, T. (2008). The causal effect of mental imagery on emotion assessed using picture-word cues. Emotion, 8(3), 395-409. doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.8.3.395

30. Holmes, E. A., Lang, T. J., Moulds, M. L., & Steele, A. M. (2008). Prospective and positive mental imagery deficits in dysphoria. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46(8), 976-981.

29. Steel, C., Mahmood, M., & Holmes, E. A. (2008). Positive schizotypy and trait dissociation as vulnerability factors for post-traumatic distress. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47(2), 245-249. doi: 10.1348/014466507X255276

28. Holmes, E. A., & Bourne, C. (2008). Inducing and modulating intrusive emotional memories: A review of the trauma film paradigm. Acta Psychologica, 127(3), 553-566. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2007.11.002

27. Hagenaars, M. A., van Minnen, A., Holmes, E. A., Brewin, C. R., & Hoogduin, K. A. L. (2008). The effect of hypnotically induced somatoform dissociation on the development of intrusions after an aversive film. Cognition & Emotion, 22(5), 944-963. doi: 10.1080/02699930701575151


26. Holmes, E. A., Arntz, A., & Smucker, M. R. (2007). Imagery rescripting in cognitive behaviour therapy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38(4), 297-305.

25. Hirsch, C. R., & Holmes, E. A. (2007). Mental imagery in anxiety disorders. Psychiatry, 6(4), 161-165.

24. Holmes, E. A., Crane, C., Fennell, M. J. V., & Williams, J. M. G. (2007). Imagery about suicide in depression - "Flash-forwards"? Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38(4), 423-434. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2007.10.004

23. Holmes, E. A., Creswell, C., & O'Connor, T. G. (2007). Posttraumatic stress symptoms in London school children following September 11th 2001: An exploratory investigation of peri-traumatic reactions and intrusive imagery. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38(4), 474-490.


22. Holmes, E. A., Oakley, D. A., Stuart, A. D., & Brewin, C. R. (2006). Investigating peri-traumatic dissociation using hypnosis during a traumatic film. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 7(4), 91-113. doi: 10.1300/J229v07n04_06

21. Holmes, E. A., Mathews, A., Dalgleish, T., & Mackintosh, B. (2006). Positive interpretation training: Effects of mental imagery versus verbal training on positive mood. Behavior Therapy, 37(3), 237-247.

20. Stuart, A. D. P., Holmes, E. A., & Brewin, C. R. (2006). The influence of a visuospatial grounding task on intrusive images of a traumatic film. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(4), 611-619.


19. Holmes, E. A., & Mathews, A. (2005). Mental imagery and emotion: A special relationship? Emotion, 5(4), 489-497.  doi: 10.1037/1528-3542.5.4.489

18. Raune, D., MacLeod, A. K., & Holmes, E. A. (2005). The simulation heuristic and visual imagery in pessimism for future negative events in anxiety. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 12(4), 313-325. doi: 10.1002/cpp.455

17. Holmes, E. A., Brown, R. J., Mansell, W., Fearon, R. P., Hunter, E. C. M., Frasquilho, F., et al. (2005). Are there two qualitatively distinct forms of dissociation? A review and some clinical implications. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(1), 1-23.

16. Holmes, E. A., Grey, N., & Young, K. A. D. (2005). Intrusive images and "hotspots" of trauma memories in posttraumatic stress disorder..Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 36(1), 3-17. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2004.11.002

15. Steel, C., Fowler, D., & Holmes, E. A. (2005). Trauma-Related Intrusions and Psychosis: An information processing account. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 33(2), 139-152.  doi: 0.1017/S1352465804001924


14. Holmes, E. A., Brewin, C. R., & Hennessy, R. G. (2004). Trauma films, information processing, and intrusive memory development. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133(1), 3-22.  doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.133.1.3

13. Holmes, E. A. (2004). Intrusive, emotional mental imagery and trauma: Experimental and clinical clues. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 23(2&3), 147-154. doi: 10.2190/HJG1-7UPH-B3K0-P9H5

12. Holmes, E. A., & Hackmann, A. (2004). A healthy imagination? Editorial for the special issue of Memory: Mental imagery in psychopathology. Memory, 12(4), 387-388. doi: 10.1080/09658210444000124

11. Day, S. J., Holmes, E. A., & Hackmann, A. (2004). Occurrence of imagery and its link with early memories in agoraphobia. Memory, 12(4), 416-427. doi: 0.1080/09658210444000034

10. Hackmann, A., & Holmes, E. A. (2004). Reflecting on imagery: A clinical perspective and overview of the special issue of Memory on mental imagery and memory in psychopathology. Memory, 12(4), 389-402. doi: 10.1080/09658210444000133

09. Holmes, E. A., & Steel, C. (2004). Schizotypy: A vulnerability factor for traumatic intrusions. Journal of Nervous &Mental Disease, 192(1), 28-34.


08. Brewin, C. R., & Holmes, E. A. (2003). Psychological theories of posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 23(3), 339-376.

07. Brewin, C. R., & Holmes, E. A. (2003). Psychology and cognitive processing in PTSD. Psychiatry, 2(6), 28-31

06. Grey, N., Young, K., & Holmes, E. A. (2002). Cognitive restructuring within reliving: A treatment for peritraumatic emotional “hotspots” in posttraumatic stress disorder. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy, 30(1), 37-56.

05. Grey, N., Holmes, E., & Brewin, C. R. (2001). Peritraumatic emotional “hot spots” in memory. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29(3), 357-362. doi10.1017/S1352465801003095

04. Holmes, E., & Tesfa-Michael, T. (2000). Extra contractual referrals (ECRs) - A profile analysis. Clinical Psychology Forum, 142, 35-39.

03. Arditi, A., Holmes, E., Reedijk, P., & Whitehouse, R. (1999). Interactive tactile maps, visual disability and accessibility of building interiors. Visual Impairment Research, 1(1), 11-21.

02. Holmes, E., & Arditi, A. (1998). Wall versus path tactile maps for route planning. Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness, 93, 531-534.

01. Holmes, E., Hughes, B., & Jansson, J. (1998). Haptic perception of texture gradients. Perception, 27(8), 993-1008.


Holmes, E. A., Sandberg, A., & Iyadurai, L. (2010). Erasing trauma memories: Is this what the science suggests or even what we want to do? [Letter to the Editor], British Journal of Psychiatry, 197(5), 414-415. doi: 10.1192/bjp.197.5.414b [view letter]

Holmes, E. A., Moulds, M. L., & Kavanagh, D. (2007). Memory suppression in PTSD treatment? [Letter to the Editor]. Science, 318(5857), 1722. doi: 10.1126/science.318.5857.1722a [view letter]