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Our publication database contains 7611 publications dating back to 1943. You can browse some of the most recently added entries below, or you can:

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Recently Added Publications


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Sequence learning recodes cortical representations instead of strengthening initial ones
Authors:
KALM, K., NORRIS, D.
Reference:
PLOS Computational Biology, 17(5): e1008969
Year of publication:
2021
CBU number:
8720
URL:
Data for this project is available at: https://gitlab.com/kristjankalm/fmri_seq_ltm
Systematic Review and Meta-analysis: Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in trauma-exposed preschool-aged children
Authors:
Woolgar, F., Garfield, H., DALGLEISH, T., Meiser-Stedman, R.
Reference:
Journal of the American of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8719
Abstract:
Objective: Trauma exposure is common in preschool children. Understanding the psychological impact of such exposure and the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in this population is important for provision of appropriate and timely intervention. This pre-registered (PROSPERO: CRD41019133984) systematic review and meta-analysis examined the prevalence of PTSD in trauma-exposed preschool-aged children. Method: Literature searches were conducted of PubMed (Medline), PsycINFO and PILOTS, alongside reference lists of relevant reviews. Studies were selected if they comprised trauma-exposed samples with a mean age less than 6.5 years, and PTSD was assessed using standardised interviews at least one-month post-trauma. Information on sample characteristics, trauma-exposure, PTSD measurement and diagnostic criteria were extracted. For studies that applied more than one PTSD diagnostic algorithm, the most age-appropriate criteria were used to estimate pooled prevalence estimate across studies. A random-effects model was used for meta-analysis. Results: Eighteen studies were included (N=1941). Pooled PTSD prevalence was 21.5% (95% CI 13.8 – 30.4%) when using the most developmentally appropriate diagnostic algorithm that was available. When focusing on the subset of studies that reported both standard adult criteria and age appropriate criteria (k=12), a pooled estimate of 4.9% (95% CI 2.5 – 8.0%) was obtained for standard adult criteria (DSM-IV), and 19.9% (95% CI 12.1 – 29.0%) was obtained for age appropriate criteria (PTSD-AA). Prevalence was three-fold higher following interpersonal and repeated trauma exposure, compared to non-interpersonal or single-event trauma, respectively. Higher prevalence was found when age-appropriate diagnostic tools were utilised. There was significant heterogeneity across studies and a lack of studies conducted in low-income countries and applying age-appropriate diagnostic algorithms. Conclusion: Preschool-aged children are vulnerable to developing PTSD following trauma exposure. Younger children show similar prevalence trends to older youth and adults following different types of trauma. Age-appropriate diagnostic criteria are essential to ensure appropriate identification and early support is provided.
Converging evidence for enduring perceptions of low social status in individuals in remission from depression
Authors:
GILLARD, J., GORMLEY, S., GRIFFITHS, K., HITCHCOCK, C., STRETTON, J., DALGLEISH, T.
Reference:
Journal of Affective Disorders
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8718
Abstract:
Background The risk of depressive relapse and recurrence is associated with social risk factors that may be amplified by a submissive socio-cognitive profile. Methods In Study 1 we aimed to identify perceptions of low social status in a community sample (N=613) with a self-reported history of mental health difficulties (n=232) and, more specifically in Study 2 (N=122), in individuals in clinical remission from depression (n=18), relative to a never-depressed control group (n=64), and relative to a group experiencing a current depressive episode (n=40). Results In Study 1, a total of 225 of the 232 participants in the self-reported mental health difficulties group opted to provide further information regarding their mental health history, of whom 153 (68%) reported a history of anxiety, 168 (74.7%) reported a history of depression, and 13 (5.8%) reported an unspecified mental health history. Elevated depressive symptoms were associated with perceptions of low social status which significantly differed between individuals with and without a self-reported history of mental health difficulties. In Study 2 we found enduring perceptions of low social status in remitted depressed individuals. Limitations We were unable to discern between historical or current clinical diagnosis in the community sample of Study 1, as we were reliant on self-report. We were unable to explore the effects of medication or causal relationships between depressive symptoms and social status as the studies were cross-sectional in nature. Conclusions These findings suggest that evolutionarily rooted socio-cognitive profiles could impact affiliative processes and may confer increased vulnerability to future depressive
Further simulations of the effect of cochlear-implant pre-processing and head movement on interaural level differences
Authors:
ARCHER-BOYD, A., CARLYON, R.P.
Reference:
Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8717
Abstract:
We simulated the effect of several automatic gain control (AGC) and AGC-like systems and head movement on the output levels, and resulting interaural level differences (ILDs) produced by bilateral cochlear-implant (CI) processors. The simulated AGC systems included unlinked AGCs with a range of parameter settings, linked AGCs, and two proprietary multi-channel systems used in contemporary CIs. The results show that over the range of values used clinically, the parameters that most strongly affect dynamic ILDs are the release time and compression ratio. Linking AGCs preserves ILDs at the expense of monaural level changes and, possibly, comfortable listening level. Multichannel AGCs can whiten output spectra, and/or distort the dynamic changes in ILD that occur during and after head movement. We propose that an unlinked compressor with a ratio of approximately 3:1 and a release time of 300-500 ms can preserve the shape of dynamic ILDs, without causing large spectral distortions or sacrificing listening comfort.
Left egocentric neglect in early subacute right-stroke patients is related to damage of the superior longitudinal fasciculus
Authors:
Spanò, B., NARDO, D., Giulietti, G., Matano, A., Salsano, I., Briani, C., Vadalà, R., Marzi, C., De Luca, M., Caltagirone, C., Santangelo, V.
Reference:
Brain Imaging and Behavior
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8716
Abstract:
typical consequence of stroke in the right hemisphere is unilateral spatial neglect. Distinct forms of neglect have been described, such as space-based (egocentric) and object-based (allocentric) neglect. However, the relationship between these two forms of neglect is still far from being understood, as well as their neural substrates. Here, we further explore this issue by using voxel lesion symptoms mapping (VLSM) analyses on a large sample of early subacute right-stroke patients assessed with the Apples Cancellation Test. This is a sensitive test that simultaneously measures both egocentric and allocentric neglect. Behaviourally, we found no correlation between egocentric and allocentric performance, indicating independent mechanisms supporting the two forms of neglect. This was confirmed by the VLSM analysis that pointed out a link between a damage in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and left egocentric neglect. By contrast, no association was found between brain damage and left allocentric neglect. These results indicate a higher probability to observe egocentric neglect as a consequence of white matter damages in the superior longitudinal fasciculus, while allocentric neglect appears more “globally” related to the whole lesion map. Overall, these findings on early subacute right-stroke patients highlight the role played by white matter integrity in sustaining attention-related operations within an egocentric frame of reference.
Data for this project is held by an external institution. Please contact the authors to request a copy.
Temporal variabilities provide additional category-related information in object category decoding: a systematic comparison of informative EEG features
Authors:
KARIMI-ROUZBAHANI, H., Shahmohammadi, M., Vahab, E., Setayeshi, S., Carlson, T.
Reference:
Neural Computation
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8715
Abstract:
How does the human brain encode visual object categories? Our understanding of this has advanced substantially with the development of multivariate decoding analyses. However, conventional electroencephalography (EEG) decoding predominantly use the “mean” neural activation within the analysis window to extract category information. Such temporal averaging overlooks the within-trial neural variability which is suggested to provide an additional channel for the encoding of information about the complexity and uncertainty of the sensory input. The richness of temporal variabilities, however, has not been systematically compared with the conventional “mean” activity. Here we compare the information content of 31 variability-sensitive features against the “mean” of activity, using three independent highly-varied datasets. In whole-trial decoding, the classical event-related potential (ERP) components of “P2a” and “P2b” provided information comparable to those provided by “Original Magnitude Data (OMD)” and “Wavelet Coefficients (WC)”, the two most informative variability-sensitive features. In time-resolved decoding, the “OMD” and “WC” outperformed all the other features (including “mean”), which were sensitive to limited and specific aspects of temporal variabilities, such as their phase or frequency. The information was more pronounced in Theta frequency band, previously suggested to support feed-forward visual processing. We concluded that the brain might encode the information in multiple aspects of neural variabilities simultaneously e.g. phase, amplitude and frequency rather than “mean” per se. In our active categorization dataset, we found that more effective decoding of the neural codes corresponds to better prediction of behavioral performance. Therefore, the incorporation of temporal variabilities in time-resolved decoding can provide additional category information and improved prediction of behavior.
Data for this project is available at: https://osf.io/ganw3
Bridging Brain and Cognition: A Multilayer Network Analysis of Brain Structural Covariance and General Intelligence in a Developmental Sample of Struggling Learners
Authors:
Simpson-Kent, I.L., Fried, E, I., AKARCA, D, MAREVA, S., Bullmore, E.T., The CALM Team, Kievit , R.A.
Reference:
Journal of Intelligence, 9(2), 32
Year of publication:
2021
CBU number:
8714
URL:
Sensing and seeing associated with overlapping occipitoparietal activation in simultaneous EEG-fMRI
Authors:
SCRIVENER, C., Malik, A., Linder, M., Roesch, E.
Reference:
Neuroscience of Consciousness, 2021(1):niab008
Year of publication:
2021
CBU number:
8713
Abstract:
The presence of a change in a visual scene can influence brain activity and behaviour, even in the absence of full conscious report. It may be possible for us to sense that such a change has occurred, even if we cannot specify exactly where or what it was. Despite existing evidence from electroencephalogram (EEG) and eye-tracking data, it is still unclear how this partial level of awareness relates to fMRI BOLD activation. Using EEG, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and a change blindness paradigm, we found multi-modal evidence to suggest that sensing a change is distinguishable from being blind to it. Specifically, trials during which participants could detect the presence of a colour change but not identify the location of the change (sense trials), were compared to those where participants could both detect and localise the change (localise or see trials), as well as change blind trials. In EEG, late parietal positivity and N2 amplitudes were larger for localised changes only, when compared to change blindness. However, ERP-informed fMRI analysis found no voxels with activation that significantly co-varied with fluctuations in single-trial late positivity amplitudes. In fMRI, a range of visual (BA17,18), parietal (BA7,40), and midbrain (anterior cingulate, BA24) areas showed increased fMRI BOLD activation when a change was sensed, compared to change blindness. These visual and parietal areas are commonly implicated as the storage sites of visual working memory, and we therefore argue that sensing may not be explained by a lack of stored representation of the visual display. Both seeing and sensing a change were associated with an overlapping occipitoparietal network of activation when compared to blind trials, suggesting that the quality of the visual representation, rather than the lack of one, may result in partial awareness during the change blindness paradigm.
URL:
Data for this project is available at: https://osf.io/w6bh3/
When is simultaneous recording necessary? A guide for researchers considering combined EEG-fMRI
Authors:
SCRIVENER, C.
Reference:
Frontiers in Neuroscience
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8712
Abstract:
Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provide non-invasive measures of brain activity at varying spatial and temporal scales, offering different views on brain function for both clinical and experimental applications. Simultaneous recording of these measures attempts to maximise the respective strengths of each method, while compensating for their weaknesses. However, combined recording is not necessary to address all research questions of interest, and experiments may have greater statistical power to detect effects by maximising the signal-to-noise ratio in separate recording sessions. While several existing papers discuss the reasons for or against combined recording, this article aims to synthesise these arguments into a flow-chart of questions that researchers can consider when deciding whether to record EEG and fMRI separately or simultaneously. Given the potential advantages of simultaneous EEG-fMRI, the aim is to provide an initial overview of the most important concepts and to direct readers to relevant literature that will aid them in this decision.
The early course and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in very young children: Diagnostic prevalence and predictors in hospital-attending children and a randomized controlled proof-of-concept trial of trauma-focused cognitive therapy, for 3-8 year olds
Authors:
HITCHCOCK, C., GOODAL, B., Wright, I.M., Boyle, A., Johnston, D., DUNNING, D., Gillard, J., GRIFFITHS, K., Humphrey, A., Mckinnon, A., Panesar, I.K., Werner-Seidler, A., WATSON, P., Smtih, P., Meiser-Stedman, R., DALGLEISH, T.
Reference:
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8711
URL:


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