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Our publication database contains 7875 publications dating back to 1943. You can browse some of the most recently added entries below, or you can:

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Does Theta Synchronicity of Sensory Information Enhance Associative Memory? Replicating the Theta-Induced Memory Effect
Authors:
SERIN, F., Wang, D., DAVIS, M.H., HENSON, R.
Reference:
Brain and Neuroscience Advances
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8981
Abstract:
The binding of information from different sensory or neural sources is critical for associative memory. Previous research in animals suggested that the timing of theta oscillations in the hippocampus is critical for long-term potentiation, which underlies associative and episodic memory. Studies with human participants showed correlations between theta oscillations in medial temporal lobe and episodic memory. Clouter et al. (2017) directly investigated this link by modulating the intensity of the luminance and the sound of the video clips so that they ‘flickered’ at certain frequencies and with varying synchronicity between the visual and auditory streams. Across several experiments, better memory was found for stimuli that flickered synchronously at theta frequency compared with no-flicker, asynchronous theta, or synchronous alpha and delta frequencies. This effect – which they called the Theta Induced Memory Effect (TIME) – is consistent with the importance of theta synchronicity for long-term potentiation. Additionally, electroencephalography (EEG) data showed entrainment of cortical regions to the visual and auditory flicker, and that synchronicity was achieved in neuronal oscillations (with a fixed delay between visual and auditory streams). The theoretical importance, large effect size, and potential application to enhance real-world memory mean that a replication of TIME would be highly valuable. The present study aimed to replicate the key differences among synchronous theta, asynchronous theta, synchronous delta and no-flicker conditions, but within a single experiment. The results do not show evidence of improved memory for theta synchronicity in any of the comparisons. We suggest a reinterpretation of TIME to accommodate this non-replication
Exploring transdiagnostic stress and trauma-related symptoms across the world: a latent class analysis
Authors:
Kooistra, M.J., Bourey, C., Chimed-Ochir, U., Doubkova, N., Hoeboer, C.M., Lathan, E.C., Christie, H & DE HAAN, A.
Reference:
European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 15(1)
Year of publication:
2024
CBU number:
8980
Abstract:
Background: Although trauma exposure is universally prevalent, the ways in which individuals respond to potentially traumatic events vary. Between-country differences have been identified as affecting the development and manifestation of transdiagnostic psychological symptoms, but it remains unclear how stress and trauma-related transdiagnostic symptoms and risk patterns differ based on geographic region.Objective: To explore whether there are distinct classes of stress and trauma-related transdiagnostic symptoms and to determine predictors of class membership in a global sample.Method: Participants (N = 8675) from 115 different countries were recruited online between 2020-2022 and completed the Global Psychotrauma Screen, which assesses stress and trauma exposure, related symptoms, and risk factors. A latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify classes of stress and trauma-related symptoms per world region (African States, Asia-Pacific States, Eastern European States, Latin American and Caribbean States, Western European and Other States, and North America) and the total sample. Likelihood of class membership was assessed based on demographics, characteristics of the potentially traumatic event, and potential risk factors across the world regions.Results: Similar class compositions were observed across regions. A joint latent class analysis identified three classes that differed by symptom severity (i.e. high, moderate, low). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed several factors that conferred greater risk for experiencing higher levels of symptoms, including geographic region, gender, and lack of social support, among others.Conclusions: Stress and trauma-related symptoms seem to be similarly transdiagnostic across the world, supporting the value of a transdiagnostic assessment.
URL:
Saturation genome editing of DDX3X clarifies pathogenicity of germline and somatic variation
Authors:
Radford, E.J., Tan, H.K., Andersson, M.H.L., Stephenson, J.D., Gardner, E.J., Ironfield, H., Waters, A.J., Gitterman, D., Lindsay, S., Abascal, F., Martincorena, I., Kolesnik-Taylor, A., Ng-Cordell, E., Firth, H.V., BAKER, K., Perry, J.R.B., Adams, D.J., Gerety, S.S., Hurles, M.E.
Reference:
Nature Communications, 14(1): 7702
Year of publication:
2023
CBU number:
8979
Abstract:
Loss-of-function of DDX3X is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) in females. DDX3X is also a somatically mutated cancer driver gene proposed to have tumour promoting and suppressing effects. We perform saturation genome editing of DDX3X, testing in vitro the functional impact of 12,776 nucleotide variants. We identify 3432 functionally abnormal variants, in three distinct classes. We train a machine learning classifier to identify functionally abnormal variants of NDD-relevance. This classifier has at least 97% sensitivity and 99% specificity to detect variants pathogenic for NDD, substantially out-performing in silico predictors, and resolving up to 93% of variants of uncertain significance. Moreover, functionally-abnormal variants can account for almost all of the excess nonsynonymous DDX3X somatic mutations seen in DDX3X-driven cancers. Systematic maps of variant effects generated in experimentally tractable cell types have the potential to transform clinical interpretation of both germline and somatic disease-associated variation.
URL:
Neural mechanisms of domain-general inhibitory control
Authors:
Wessel, J.R., ANDERSON, M.C.
Reference:
Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 28(2), 124-143
Year of publication:
-
CBU number:
8978
Abstract:
Inhibitory control is a fundamental mechanism underlying flexible behaviorand features in theories across many areas of cognitive and psychological science.However, whereas many theories implicitly or explicitly assume that inhibitorycontrol is a domain-general process, the vast majority of neuroscientific work hashitherto focused on individual domains, such as motor, mnemonic, or attentionalinhibition. Here, we attempt to close this gap between by highlighting recent workthat demonstrates shared neuroanatomical and neurophysiological signatures ofinhibitory control across domains. We propose that the regulation of thalamocorticaldrive by a fronto-subthalamic mechanism operating in the β-band might be adomain-general mechanism for inhibitory control in the human brain.
URL:
Fractionating distraction: how past- and future relevant distractors influence integrated decisions
Authors:
Barnes, L., Rangelov, D., Mattingley, J.B., WOOLGAR, A.
Reference:
Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 01 May 2023, 49(5):737-752
Year of publication:
2023
CBU number:
8977
Abstract:
Many everyday tasks require us to integrate information from multiple steps to make a decision. Dominant accounts of flexible cognition suggest that we are able to navigate such complex tasks by attending to each step in turn, yet few studies measure how we direct our attention to immediate and future task steps. Here, we used a two-step task to test whether participants are sensitive to information that is currently irrelevant, but will be relevant in a future task step. Participants viewed two displays in sequence, each containing two superimposed moving dot clouds of different colours. Participants attended to one cued target colour in each display and reported the average direction of the two target dot clouds. In a subset of trials, we presented a “decoy” distractor: the second target colour appeared as the distractor in the first display. We regressed behavioural responses on the dot clouds’ motion directions to track how this future-relevant “decoy” distractor influenced participants’ reporting of the average target direction. We compared the influence of decoy distractors to never-relevant, recently relevant, and globally relevant distractor baselines. Across four experiments, we found that responses reflected what was immediately relevant, as well as the broader historical relevance of the distractors. However, relevance for a future task step did not reliably influence attention. We propose that attention in multi-step tasks is shaped by what has been relevant in the current setting, and by the immediate demands of each task step.
URL:
Adaptive latent feature sharing for piecewise linear dimensionality reduction
Authors:
Farooq, A., Raykov, Y.P., RAYKOV, P., Little, M.A.
Reference:
Journal of Machine Learning Research
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8976
Abstract:
Linear Gaussian exploratory tools such as principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) are widely used for exploratory analysis, pre-processing, data visualization, and related tasks. Because the linear-Gaussian assumption is restrictive, for very high dimensional problems, they have been replaced by robust, sparse extensions or more flexible discrete-continuous latent feature models. Discrete-continuous latent feature models specify a dictionary of features dependent on subsets of the data and then infer the likelihood that each data point shares any of these features. This is often achieved using textit{rich-get-richer} assumptions about the feature allocation process where the dictionary tries to couple the feature frequency with the portion of total variance that it explains. In this work, we propose an alternative approach that allows for better control over the feature to data point allocation. This new approach is based on two-parameter discrete distribution models which decouple feature sparsity and dictionary size, hence capturing both common and rare features in a parsimonious way. The new framework is used to derive a novel adaptive variant of factor analysis (aFA), as well as an adaptive probabilistic principal component analysis (aPPCA) capable of flexible structure discovery and dimensionality reduction in a wide variety of scenarios. We derive both standard Gibbs sampling, as well as efficient expectation-maximisation inference approximations converging orders of magnitude faster, to a reasonable point estimate solution. The utility of the proposed aPPCA and aFA models is demonstrated on standard tasks such as feature learning, data visualization, and data whitening. We show that aPPCA and aFA can extract interpretable, high-level features for raw MNIST or COLI-20 images, or when applied to the analysis of autoencoder features. We also demonstrate that replacing common PCA pre-processing pipelines in the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data with aPPCA, leads to more robust and better-localised blind source separation of neural activity. Scripts reporting the method are shared through google colab https://colab.research.google.com/drive/1KrrHmAu6mV7tutZtYnpEbVibxs4GCwIo?usp=sharing
Improved tactile speech robustness to background noise with a dual-path recurrent neural network noise-reduction method
Authors:
Fletcher, M.D., Perry, S.W., Thoidis, I., Verschuur, C.A., Goehring, T.
Reference:
Scientific Reports
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8975
Abstract:
Many people with hearing loss struggle to understand speech in noisy environments, making noise robustness critical for hearing-assistive devices. Recently developed haptic hearing aids, which convert audio to vibration, can improve speech-in-noise performance for cochlear implant (CI) users and assist those unable to access hearing-assistive devices. They are typically body-worn rather than head-mounted, allowing additional space for batteries and microprocessors, and so can deploy more sophisticated noise-reduction techniques. The current study assessed whether a real-time-feasible dual-path recurrent neural network (DPRNN) can improve tactile speech-in-noise performance. Audio was converted to vibration on the wrist using a vocoder method, either with or without noise reduction. Performance was tested for speech in a multi-talker noise (recorded at a party) with a 2.5-dB signal-to-noise ratio. An objective assessment showed the DPRNN improved the scale-invariant signal-to-distortion ratio by 8.6 dB and substantially outperformed traditional noise-reduction (log-MMSE). A behavioural assessment in 16 participants showed the DPRNN improved tactile-only sentence identification in noise by 8.2%. This suggests that advanced techniques like the DPRNN could substantially improve outcomes with haptic hearing aids. Low-cost haptic devices could soon be an important supplement to hearing-assistive devices such as CIs or offer an alternative for people who cannot access CI technology.
Data available, click to request
Global topology of human connectome is insensitive to early life environments - A prospective longitudinal study of the general population
Authors:
CAROZZA, S., Holmes, J., AKARCA, D.and ASTLE, D.
Reference:
Developmental Science
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8974
Abstract:
The widely acknowledged detrimental impact of early adversity on child development has driven efforts to understand the underlying mechanisms that may mediate these effects within the developing brain. Recent efforts have begun to move beyond associating adversity with the morphology of individual brain regions towards determining if and how adversity might shape their interconnectivity. However, whether adversity effects a global shift in the organisation of whole-brain networks remains unclear. In this study, we assessed this possibility using parental questionnaire and diffusion imaging data from The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, N = 913), a prospective longitudinal study spanning more than 20 years. We tested whether a wide range of adversities—including experiences of abuse, domestic violence, physical and emotional cruelty, poverty, neglect, and parental separation—measured by questionnaire within the first seven years of life were significantly associated with the tractography-derived connectome in young adulthood. We tested this across multiple measures of organisation and using a computational model that simulated the wiring economy of the brain. We found no significant relationships between early exposure to any form of adversity and the global organisation of the structural connectome in young adulthood. We did detect local differences in the medial prefrontal cortex, as well as an association between weaker brain wiring constraints and greater externalising behaviour in adolescence. Our results indicate that further efforts are necessary to delimit the magnitude and functional implications of adversity-related differences in connectomic organization
Exploring the Use of Interleaved Stimuli to Measure Cochlear-Implant Excitation Patterns
Authors:
GUERIT, F., Middlebrookes, J.C., Grainsier, R., Richardson, M.L., Wouters, J., CARLYON, R.P.
Reference:
Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8973
Abstract:
Attempts to use current-focusing strategies in cochlear-implant (CI) stimulation to reduce neural spread-of-excitation have met with only mixed success in human CI studies, in contrast to promising results in animal studies. Although this discrepancy could stem from between-species anatomical and aetiological differences, it may be that the masking experiments used in human studies are insufficiently sensitive to differences in excitation-pattern width. We used an interleaved-masking method to measure psychophysical excitation patterns in seven participants with four masker stimulation configurations: monopolar (MP), partial tripolar (pTP), a wider partial tripolar (pTP+2), and, importantly, a condition (RP+2) designed to produce a broader excitation pattern than MP. The probe was always in partial-tripolar configuration. We found a significant effect of stimulation configuration on both the amount of on-site masking (mask and probe on same electrode; an indirect indicator of sharpness) and the difference between off-site and on-site masking. Differences were driven solely by RP+2 producing a broader excitation pattern than the other configurations, whereas monopolar and the two current-focusing configurations did not statistically differ from each other. Hence a method that is sensitive enough to reveal a modest broadening in RP+2 showed no evidence for sharpening with focussed stimulation. We also showed that although voltage recordings from the implant accurately predicted a broadening of the psychophysical excitation patterns with RP+2, they wrongly predicted a strong sharpening with pTP+2. We additionally argue, based on our recent research, that the interleaved-masking method can usefully be applied to non-human species and objective measures of CI excitation patterns.
URL:
Artifact removal by template subtraction enables recordings of the frequency following response in cochlear-implant users
Authors:
Gransier, R., CARLYLON, R.P., Richardson, M.L., Middlebrooks, J.C. and Wouters, J.
Reference:
Scientific Reports
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8972
Abstract:
Electrically evoked frequency-following responses (eFFRs) provided insight in the phase-locking ability of brainstem of cochlear-implant (CI) users. eFFRs can potentially be used to provide insight in the individual differences in the biological limitation on temporal encoding of the electrically stimulated auditory pathway, which can be inherent to the electrical stimulation itself and/or the degenerative processes associated with hearing loss. One of the major challenge of measuring eFFRs in CI users is the process of isolating the stimulation artifact from the neural response, as both the response and the artifact overlap in time and have similar frequency characteristics. Here we introduce a new artifact removal method based on template subtraction that successfully removes the stimulation artifacts from the recordings when CI users are stimulated with pulse trains from 128 to 300 pulses per second in a monopolar configuration. Our results show that, although artifact removal was successful in all CI users, the phase-locking ability of the brainstem to the different pulse rates, as assessed with the eFFR differed substantially across participants. These results show that the eFFR can be measured, free from artifacts, in CI users and that they can be used to gain insight in individual differences in temporal processing of the electrically stimulated auditory pathway.


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