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Our publication database contains 7765 publications dating back to 1943. You can browse some of the most recently added entries below, or you can:

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Cognitive variations following exposure to childhood adversity: Evidence from a pre-registered, longitudinal study
Authors:
NWEZE, T., Ezenwa, M., Ajaelu, C., Hanson, J.L., Okoye, C.
Reference:
Eclinicalmedicine, 56: 101784
Year of publication:
2023
CBU number:
8879
Abstract:
Background Different methodological approaches to studying the effects and timing of childhood adversity have been proposed and tested. While childhood adversity has primarily been operationalized through specificity (effects of individual adversity types) and cumulative risk (sum of all adversities reported by an individual) models, dimensional models (probeable through latent class and other cluster analyses) have recently gained traction given that it can overcome some of the limitations of the specificity and cumulative risk approaches. On the other hand, structured lifecourse modelling is a new statistical approach that examines the effects of the timing of adversity exposure on health outcomes by comparing sensitive periods and accumulation hypotheses. In this study, we apply these sets of methodological approaches and theoretical models to better understand the complex effects of childhood adversity on cognitive outcomes. Methods We analysed data obtained from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children for 2965 participants (Male = 1125; Female = 1840). This included parental report of 11 types of childhood adversity when participants were between 8 months and 8.7 years, and performance on inhibition, working memory and emotion recognition neurocognitive tasks when participants were 24 years of age (April 1, 1992-October 31, 2017). We used latent class analysis to classify the participants into subgroups, while we used Kruskal-Wallis test to examine differences in cognitive performance among the adversity subgroups. Additionally, to test whether sensitive period or accumulation models better explain the effects of childhood adversity on cognitive functioning, we carried out separate analyses using structured lifecourse modelling approaches. Findings Latent class analysis showed evidence of 5 classes, namely: low adversity (71.6%), dysfunctional family (9.58%); parental deprivation (9.65%); family poverty (6.07%) and global adversity (3.1%). We observed group differences in cognitive performance among the adversity classes in an inhibition control task, χ2(4) = 15.624, p = 0.003 and working memory task, χ2(4) = 15.986, p = 0.003. Pairwise comparison tests showed that participants in the family poverty class performed significantly worse than those in the low adversity class, for the inhibition control task (p = 0.007) while participants in the global adversity class significantly performed worse than participants in the low adversity class (p = 0.026) and dysfunctional family class (p = 0.034) on the working memory task. A further analysis revealed that the associations between each individual adversity type and cognitive outcomes were mostly consistent with the observed class performance in which they co-occurred. Follow-up analyses suggested that adversity during specific sensitive periods, namely very early childhood and early childhood, explained more variability in these observed associations, compared to the accumulation of adversities. Interpretation These findings suggest that dimensional approaches e.g., latent class analysis or cluster analysis could be good alternatives to studying childhood adversity. Using latent class analysis for example, can help reveal the population distribution of co-occurring adversity patterns among participants who may be at the greatest health risk and thus, enable a targeted intervention. In addition, this approach could be used to investigate specific pathways that link adversity classes to different developmental outcomes that could further complement the specificity or cumulative risk approaches to adversity. On the other hand, findings from a separate analysis using structured lifecourse modelling approaches also highlight the vital developmental timeframes in childhood during which the impact of adversity exposure on cognitive outcomes is greatest, suggesting the need to provide comprehensive academic and mental health support to individuals exposed during those specific timeframes.
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High gamma activity distinguishes frontal cognitive control regions from adjacent cortical networks
Authors:
ASSEM, M., Hart, M.G., Coelho, P., Romero-Garcia, R., McDonald, A., Woodberry, E., Morris, R.C., Price, S.J., Suckling, J., Santarius, T., DUNCAN, J., EREZ, Y.
Reference:
Cortex
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8878
Abstract:
Though the lateral frontal cortex is broadly implicated in cognitive control, functional MRI (fMRI) studies suggest fine-grained distinctions within this region. To examine this question electrophysiologically, we placed electrodes on the lateral frontal cortex in patients undergoing awake craniotomy for tumor resection. Patients performed verbal tasks with a manipulation of attentional switching, a canonical control demand. Power in the high gamma range (70-250 Hz) distinguished electrodes based on their location within a high-resolution fMRI network parcellation of the frontal lobe. Electrodes within the canonical fronto-parietal control network showed increased power in the switching condition, a result absent in electrodes within default mode, language, cingulo-opercular and somato-motor networks. High gamma results contrasted with spatially distributed power decreases in the beta range (12-30 Hz). These results confirm the importance of fine-scale functional distinctions within the human frontal lobe, and pave the way for increased precision of functional mapping in tumor surgeries.
Speaking and listening to inter-brain relationships
Authors:
Perez, A., DAVIS, M.H.
Reference:
Cortex, 159:54-63
Year of publication:
2022
CBU number:
8876
Abstract:
Studies of inter-brain relationships thrive, and yet many reservations regarding their scope and interpretation of these phenomena have been raised by the scientific community. It is thus essential to establish common ground on methodological and conceptual definitions related to this topic and to open debate about any remaining points of uncertainty. We here offer insights to improve the conceptual clarity and empirical standards offered by social neuroscience studies of inter-personal interaction using hyperscanning with a particular focus on verbal communication.
URL:
Continuous monitoring of neonatal cortical activity: A major step forward
Authors:
Baud, O., ARZOUNIAN, D, Bourel-Ponchel, E.
Reference:
Cell Reports Medicine
Year of publication:
2022
CBU number:
8875
Abstract:
Montazeri Moghadam et al.1 report an automated algorithm to visually convert EEG recordings to real-time quantified interpretations of EEG in neonates. The resulting measure of the brain state of the newborn (BSN) bridges several gaps in neurocritical care monitoring.
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An online implementation of a measure of spectro-temporal processing by cochlear-implant listeners
Authors:
ARCHER-BOYD, A.W., HARLAND, A., GOEHRING, T., CARLYON, R.P.
Reference:
JASA Express Letters, 3, 014402
Year of publication:
2023
CBU number:
8874
Abstract:
The STRIPES (Spectro-Temporal Ripple for Investigating Processor EffectivenesS) test is a psychophysical measure of spectro-temporal resolution in cochlear-implant (CI) listeners. It has been validated using direct-line input and loudspeaker presentation with listeners of the Advanced Bionics CI. This article investigates the suitability of an online application using wireless streaming (webSTRIPES) as a remote test. It reports a strong across-listener correlation between STRIPES thresholds obtained using laboratory testing with loudspeaker presentation vs. remote testing with streaming presentation, with no significant difference in STRIPES thresholds between the two measures. WebSTRIPES also produced comparable and robust thresholds with users of the Cochlear CI.
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A Network-level Test of the Role of the Co-activated Default Mode Network in Episodic Recall and Social Cognition
Authors:
JACKSON, R.L., HUMPHREYS, G.F., RICE, G.E., Binney, R.J., LAMBON RALPH, M.A.
Reference:
Cortex
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8873
Abstract:
esting-state network research is extremely influential, yet the functions of many networks remain unknown. In part, this is due to typical (e.g., univariate) analyses independently testing the function of individual regions and not examining the full set of regions that form a network whilst co-activated. Connectivity is dynamic and the function of a region may change based on its current connections. Therefore, determining the function of a network requires assessment at this network-level. Yet popular theories implicating the default mode network (DMN) in episodic memory and social cognition, rest principally upon analyses performed at the level of individual brain regions. Here we use independent component analysis to formally test the role of the DMN in episodic and social processing at the network level. As well as an episodic retrieval task, two independent datasets were employed to assess DMN function across the breadth of social cognition; a person knowledge judgement and a theory of mind task. Each task dataset was separated into networks of co-activated regions. In each, the co-activated DMN, was identified through comparison to an a priori template and its relation to the task model assessed. This co-activated DMN did not show greater activity in episodic or social tasks than high-level baseline conditions. Thus, no evidence was found to support hypotheses that the co-activated DMN is involved in explicit episodic or social tasks at a network-level. The networks associated with these processes are described. Implications for prior univariate findings and the functional significance of the co-activated DMN are considered.
When do acute augmentations boost the efficacy of psychological therapy? A transdiagnostic meta-analysis
Authors:
LONGLEY, B., DERCON, Q., Phillips, V., Funk, J., GORMLEY, S., KNIGHT, R., SMITH, AL.J., DALGLEISH, R.
Reference:
Nature Mental Health
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8872
Abstract:
At least half of all patients with mental health disorders do not respond adequately to psychological therapy. Acutely enhancing particular biological or psychological processes during psychological therapy may improve treatment outcomes. However, previous studies are confined to specific augmentation approaches, typically assessed within single diagnostic categories. Our objective was to assess to what degree acute augmentations of psychological therapy reduce psychiatric symptoms, and estimate effect sizes of augmentation types (e.g., brain stimulation; psychedelics). We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and Embase for controlled studies published between database inception and 25th May 2022. We conducted a pre-registered random-effects meta-analysis (PROSPERO CRD42021236403). We identified 108 studies (N=5,889). Acute augmentation significantly reduced the severity of mental health problems (Hedges’ g=-0.27, 95% CI=(-0.36, -0.18); p<0.0001). Subgroup analyses revealed that pharmacological, psychological, and somatic augmentations were each effective, but varied in effect size. Acute augmentation approaches are a promising route to improve outcomes from psychological therapy.
Maximising the positive and minimising the negative: Social media data to study youth mental health with informed consent
Authors:
Leightley, D., Bye, A., Carter, B., Trevillion, K., Bramthonne-Foster, S., Liakata, M., Wood, A., Ougrin, D., ORBEN, A., Ford, T., Dutta, R
Reference:
Frontiers in Psychiatry
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8871
Abstract:
Social media usage impacts upon the mental health and wellbeing of young people, yet there is not enough evidence to determine who is affected, how and to what extent. While it has widened and strengthened communication networks for many, the dangers posed to at-risk youth are serious. Social media data offers unique insights into the minute details of a user’s online life. Timely consented access to data could offer many opportunities to transform understanding of its effects on mental well-being in different contexts. However, limited data access by researchers is preventing such advances from being made. Our multidisciplinary authorship includes a lived experience adviser, academic and practising psychiatrists, and academic psychology, as well as computational, statistical, and qualitative researchers. In this Perspective article, we propose a framework to support secure and confidential access to social media platform data for research to make progress towards better public mental health.
Electrophysiological and psychophysical measures of temporal pitch sensitivity in normal-hearing listeners
Authors:
GUERIT, F., HARLAND, A.J., Richardson. M.L., Gransoer, R., Middlebrooks, J.C., Wouters, J. and CARLYLON, R.P.
Reference:
Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology : JARO, 05 Dec 2022
Year of publication:
2022
CBU number:
8870
Abstract:
To obtain combined behavioural and electrophysiological measures of pitch perception, we presented harmonic complexes, bandpass filtered to contain only high-numbered harmonics, to normal-hearing listeners. These stimuli resemble bandlimited pulse trains and convey pitch using a purely temporal code. A core set of conditions consisted of six stimuli with baseline pulse rates of 94, 188 and 280 pps, filtered into a HIGH (3365–4755 Hz) or VHIGH (7800–10,800 Hz) region, alternating with a 36% higher pulse rate. Brainstem and cortical processing were measured using the frequency following response (FFR) and auditory change complex (ACC), respectively. Behavioural rate change difference limens (DLs) were measured by requiring participants to discriminate between a stimulus that changed rate twice (up-down or down-up) during its 750- ms presentation from a constant-rate pulse train. FFRs revealed robust brainstem phase locking whose amplitude decreased with increasing rate. Moderate-sized but reliable ACCs were obtained in response to changes in purely temporal pitch and, like the psychophysical DLs, did not depend consistently on the direction of rate change or on the pulse rate for baseline rates between 94 and 280 pps. ACCs were larger and DLs lower for stimuli in the HIGH than in the VHGH region. We argue that the ACC may be a useful surrogate for behavioural measures of rate discrimination, both for normal-hearing listeners and for cochlear-implant users. We also showed that rate DLs increased markedly when the baseline rate was reduced to 48 pps, and compared the behavioural and electrophysiological findings to recent cat data obtained with similar stimuli and methods.
URL:
Debate: Should academics collaborate with digital companies to improve young people’s mental health?
Authors:
Livingstone, S., ORBEN, A., Odger, C.
Reference:
Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 28(1), 150-152
Year of publication:
2022
CBU number:
8869
Abstract:
Should academics collaborate with social media and gaming companies to identify and reduce mental health impacts on children and young people? While opinions on this question sharply diverge within the academic community, in practice collaboration is already widespread. As digital platforms increasingly dominate the time and attention of many young people and are the source of both considerable concern as well as offering innovative opportunities for beneficial interventions, researchers are recognising the potential for collaboration to accelerate positive impact. However, concerns over the independence and transparency of collaborative research have received little institutional or collective response. Recognising both the promise and the pitfalls, this debate article calls for multidisciplinary deliberation within the academy to support the co-development of clear guidelines on the principles and processes by which collaboration is best undertaken, as well as the basis for ensuring that some research remains independent.
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