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Neurorehabilitation for two cases of post-traumatic stress disorder following traumatic brain injury.
Williams, W.H., Evans, J.J. & WILSON, B.A.
Cognitive Neuropsychiatry, 8(1), 1-18
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Introduction: We present two cases to illustrate the assessment and management of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PtSD) in the context of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). KE suffered a TBI in a road traffic accident (RTA) in which his girlfriend was killed. CM survived a penetrating neurological injury from a severe knife attack. Both suffered cognitive difficulties, primarily in attention and memory, and selective visual impairments, and had endured significant losses of social role. Method: Within a neurorehabilitation programme, goals were set regarding management of their cognitive difficulties for regaining social roles and for the management for their PtSD symptoms. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) was provided for managing PtSD symptoms, which included use of a stress inoculation and graduated exposure to avoided situations and trauma re-experiences. Results: Both survivors reported significant improvements in managing mood state, and in re-developing social roles. Objective measures confirmed significant gains from intervention. Conclusions: CBT, set within a neurorehabilitation programme, can lead to improvement in PtSD symptoms and psychosocial outcome in TBI survivors.