Why do certain children struggle to learn? Traditionally, researchers have sought to answer this question by looking at specific groups of children, such as children with ADHD or dyslexia, for example. But the Centre for Attention, Learning, and Memory (CALM) is taking a different approach, building a large cohort of children who were referred by specialists for having any problem with attention, learning, or memory. The CALM cohort now includes 800 children between the ages of 5-18. Some have a few different diagnoses – and some have no diagnosis at all. CALM is following these children as they grow up, and collecting data on their cognitive abilities, brain structure and function, and genetics. By analysing this rich longitudinal data, researchers at CALM have identified unique cognitive and neural profiles of children who have difficulties in attending, listening, and remembering. With the help of CALM, we are closer than ever to understanding how and why children struggle in school.