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Retroactive Effects of Irrelevant Speech on Serial Recall from Short-Term Memory.
NORRIS, D.G., Baddely, A.D. & Page, M.P.A.
Journal of Experimental Psychology - Learning, Memory and Cognition, 30(5), 1093-1105
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Five serial recall experiments are reported. In four of the five it is shown that irrelevant sound (IS) has a retroactive effect on material already in memory. In the first experiment, IS presented during a filled retention interval had a reliable effect on list recall. Four further experiments, three of which used retroactive IS, showed that IS continued to have an effect on recall following a long, filled retention interval. Articulatory suppression during visual input was found to abolish the long-lasting, retroactive effect of IS, supporting the idea that IS affects the phonological loop component of short-term memory. IS also, therefore, seems to affect a longer term memory system with which the loop interacts.