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The structure and deterioration of semantic memory: A neuropsychological and computational investigation
ROGERS, T.T., Lambon Ralph, M.A., Garrard, P., BOZEAT, S., McClelland, J.L., HODGES, J.R. & PATTERSON, K.
Psychological Review, 111(1), 205-235
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Wernicke suggested that semantic knowledge arises from the interaction of perceptual representations of objects and words. We present a PDP implementation of this theory, in which semantic representations emerge from mechanisms that acquire the mappings between visual representations of objects and their verbal descriptions. To test the theory, we train the model to associate names, verbal descriptions, and visual representations of objects. When its inputs and outputs are constructed to capture aspects of structure apparent in attribute norming experiments, the model provides an intuive account of semantic task performance. We then use the model to understand the structure of impaired performance in patients with selective and progressive impairments of conceptual knowledge. Data from four well-known semantic tasks reveal consistent patters that find a ready explanation in the model. The relationship between our model and related theories of semantic representation is discussed.