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Phonological memory and serial order: A sandwich for TODAM.
Baddeley, A.D., Papagno, C. & Norris, D.
In W.E. Hockley & S. Lewandowsky (Eds.), Relating Theory and Data: Essays on Human Memory in Honor of Bennet B. Murdock (pp. 175-194). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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This paper briefly surveys the evidence for the importance of phonological memory in cognition, citing work on language development, comprehension and reasoning. This is followed by a brief analysis of what we already know of the functioning of phonological memory, and then goes on to address the issues that remain problematic, including the question of how serial order is stored in STM. One proposed mechanism involves encoding order by storing successive pairs of items. Such a mechanism should have difficulty in storing sequences in which a common item is sandwiched between successive target items (e.g. 50309060204 versus 539624). A series of experiments indicate reliable but modest impairment, a result that appears to create problems for pair-based serial order models, including the TODAM model of Lewandowsky and Murdock.