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Connectionism: A new class of bottom up model.
In R.G. Reilly & N.E. Sharkey (Eds.), Connectionist Approaches to Language Processing (pp. 351-371). Hove, Sussex: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Year of publication:
This paper demonstrates how phenomena such as the word-superiority effect, which we usually take as evidence for top-down processing, can be explained in terms of connectionist models with a simple bottom-up architecture. Even recent data from studies by Elman and McClelland which appears to provide categorical evidence of a top-down influence of lexical information on phonetic processing can be accounted for by bottom-up connectionist models. The apparent interaction between higher and lower level processes is a consequence of the learning mechanism rather than being due to any on-line interaction between different levels of processing. These bottom-up connectionist models cannot be considered to be simply implementations of classical information processing box models.