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Traumatic brain injury.
In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds), Comprehensive Clinical Psychology (pp.463-486). Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd.
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This chapter begins with a description of the nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI) covering primary and secondary brain damage; the incidence and prevalence of head injuries; recovery from TBI; who is at risk of TBI and the impact of TBI on the family. Part two describes problems faced by people with TBI particularly motor, sensory, emotional and social problems, behaviour problems and cognitive problems. Part three focuses on assessment of people with TBI and looks both at models of assessment and behavioural assessment. Part four considers the principles of practices of rehabilitation highlighting restoration of function, environmental restructuring, anatomical reorganisation, using residual skills more efficiently and finding alternative solutions. Part five describes four major approaches to cognitive rehabilitation, namely cognitive retraining, cognitive neuropsychology, combined approaches and the holistic approach. Part six looks at evidence for the effectiveness of rehabilitation, in particular clinical efficacy, improving quality of life and cost effectiveness. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of professional issues and how to ensure an integrated approach to rehabilitation.