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Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: Long-term MRI and neuropsychological profile.
Kapur, N., Barker, S., Burrows, E. et al., Wilson, B.A. & Loates, M.
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 57, 1334-1342
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The first comprehensive in vivo documentation of the long term profile of pathological and spared tissue is described in a group of 10 patients with a diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, who were left with memory difficulties as a major residual sequel of their condition. Using MRI protocol we established: (1) unilateral or bilateral hippocampal damage never occurred in isolation, and was often accompanied by damage to the parahippocampus, the amygdala, specific temporal lobe gyri, and the temporal poles; (2) the insula was always abnormal; (3) neocortical temporal lobe damage was usually unilateral or asymmetric. It never occurred in isolation, and was invariably associated with more medial pathological changes; (4) anterior and inferior temporal lobe gyri were damaged more often and more severely than posterior and superior temporal lobe gyri; (5) pronounced abnormality was often present in the substantia innominata (region of the basal forebrain/anterior perforated substance); (6) there was evidence of significant abnormality in the fornix; (7) there was evidence of damage to the mammillary bodies; (8) thalamic nuclei were affected in around 50% of cases, with damage usually unilateral; (9) frontal lobe damage was present in a few patients, and affected medial areas more than dorsolateral areas; (10) there was some involvement of the striatum, although this was usually unilateral and mild; (11) there was usually limited involvement of the cingulate gyrus and of the parietal and occipital lobes; (12) the cerebellum and brain stem were never damaged.