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Recent developments in the assessment of memory.
In F.J. Stachowiak, R. De Bleser, G. Deloche, R. Kaschel, H. Kremin, P. North, L. Pizzamiglio, I. Robertson, & B. Wilson, (Eds.), Developments in the assessment and rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients: Perspectives from a European Concerted Action (pp. 99-105). Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.
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A number of theoretical approaches have guided memory assessment procedures. The psychometric approach is based on statistical analysis, it includes measures of reliability, validity and performance of a selected sample of a given population. Anastasi (1982) gives a succinct account of the characteristics of psychological tests. We can include the Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised (Wechsler, 1987) as an example of the psychometric approach. Localisation studies from neuropsychology provide another approach to assessment whereby the examiner might attempt to assess deficits in the functioning of the right and left hemisphere, frontal lobes, temporal lobes and so forth. Milner (1971; 1974) is a follower of this approach. The development of theoretical models in the field of cognitive psychology has provided a rich source of support for assessors of brain injured people. For example, the working memory model (Baddeley and Hitch, 1974) has influenced the nature of assessment of neuropsychologically impaired people, particularly those with Alzheimer's Disease and other memory disorders. This model has enabled us to assess separately the individual components of working memory, visual and verbal memory, and semantic and episodic memory. Furthermore, the model allows us to explain or predict such dissociations as those seen between people with short-term and long-term memory deficits. Guided by such models, we have piloted tests to assess implicit memory and visual short-term memory.