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Components of driving skill: Experience does not mean expertise.
Duncan, J., Williams, P. & Brown, I.
Ergonomics, 34, 919-937.
Year of publication:
Using an instrumented car driven in normal traffic, we assessed the driving skills of trained experts, of normal, experienced drivers, and of novices. In terms of car control (e.g. steering path, speed of manoeuvres) normals resembled experts, while novices performed more poorly. In terms of scanning patterns (e.g. mirror checking), anticipation (e.g. braking into an intersection), and safety margins (headway on the motorway), however, it was the normal, experienced drivers who performed worst, novices sometimes even resembling experts. As one possible explanation for these results, we suggest that driving skills are under the joint control of feedback from the task itself and from direct tuition. Where the task provides good feedback, simple experience brings expertise, but where such feedback is poor, skills fail to improve or even deteriorate with the passage of time. The main conclusion, however, is simply that experience fails to benefit many aspects of driving skill.