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Frontal amnesia and the dysexecutive syndrome.
Baddeley, A.D. & Wilson, B.
Brain and Cognition, 7, 212-230.
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This study analyses the memory deficits shown by an amnesic patient with bilateral frontal damage and a dysexecutive syndrome. He resembles a classic amnesic patient in showing grossly impaired episodic memory for both verbal and non-verbal material, together with normal digit span, and on occasion normal recency in free recall. He differs from the classic amnesic pattern however in showing an impairment in both the speed and accuracy of performance on tests of semantic memory, and in clear evidence for impaired performance on some though not all procedural learning tasks. Finally, his autobiographical memory was poor and subject to substantial confabulation. It is suggested that the pattern of deficits is consistent with a combination of a classic amnesic syndrome with the additional problems associated with the frontal dysexecutive syndrome, rather than exhibiting a qualitatively different form of amnesia.