skip to primary navigation skip to content


Our publication database contains 7416 publications dating back to 1943. You can browse some of the most recently added entries below, or you can:

  • Search for particular publications
  • See publications whose data is available from our open data repository
  • Contact us to request a reprint (reprints may not be available for all publications)


Recently Added Publications


Showing page of 10


The Conceptual and Methodological Mayhem of “Screen-time”
Authors:
Kaye, L.K., ORBEN, A., Ellis, D.A., Hunter, S.C.,Houghton, S.
Reference:
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8519
Abstract:
Debates concerning the impacts of screen-time are widespread. Existing research presents mixed findings, and lacks longitudinal evidence for any causal or long-term effects. We present a critical account of the current shortcomings of the screen-time literature. These include: poor conceptualisation, the use of non-standardised measures that are predominantly self-report, and the issues with measuring screen-time over time and context. Based on these issues, we make a series of recommendations as a basis for furthering academic and public debate. These include: drawing on a user-focused approach, to seek the various affordances gained from “screen uses”. Within this, we can better understand the way in which these vary across time and context, and make distinction between objective measures of “screen-time” compared to those more subjective experiences of uses or affordances, and the differential impacts these may bring. Review article
URL:
Using Spectral Blurring to Assess Effects of Channel Interaction on Speech-In-Noise Perception with Cochlear Implants
Authors:
GOEHRING, T., Arenberg, J.G., CARLYON, R.
Reference:
Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8518
Abstract:
Cochlear implant (CI) listeners struggle to understand speech in background noise. Interactions between electrode channels due to current spread increase the masking of speech by noise and lead to difficulties with speech perception. Strategies that reduce channel interaction therefore have the potential to improve speech-in-noise perception by CI listeners, but previous results have been mixed. We investigated the effects of channel interaction on speech-in-noise perception and its association with spectro-temporal acuity in a listening study with 12 experienced CI users. Instead of attempting to reduce channel interaction, we introduced spectral blurring to simulate some of the effects of channel interaction by adjusting the overlap between electrode channels at the input level of the analysis filters or at the output by using several simultaneously-stimulated electrodes per channel. We measured speech reception thresholds in noise as a function of the amount of blurring applied to either all 15 electrode channels or to 5 evenly spaced channels. Performance remained roughly constant as the amount of blurring applied to all channels increased up to some knee point, above which it deteriorated. This knee point differed across listeners in a way that correlated with performance on a non-speech spectro-temporal task, and is proposed here as an individual measure of channel interaction. Surprisingly, even extreme amounts of blurring applied to 5 channels did not affect performance. The effects on speech perception in noise were similar for blurring at the input and at the output of the CI. The results are in line with the assumption that experienced CI users can make use of a limited number of effective channels of information and tolerate some deviations from their everyday settings when identifying speech in the presence of a masker. Furthermore, these findings may explain the mixed results by strategies that optimized or deactivated a small number of electrodes evenly distributed along the array by showing that blurring or deactivating one third of the electrodes did not harm speech-in-noise performance.
Impaired autobiographical memory flexibility in Iranian trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder
Authors:
Piltan, M., Moradi, A.R., Chobin, M.H., Azadfallah, P., Eskandari, S., HITCHCOCK, C.
Reference:
Cliical Psychological Science
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8517
Abstract:
Reduced ability to retrieve specific autobiographical memories is a well-defined feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such that science-driven interventions have emerged to improve memory specificity and thereby symptoms. However, research in depressed samples indicates that the ability to flexibly move between retrieval of specific and general memory types (i.e., memory flexibility) may more accurately conceptualise autobiographical memory deficits in emotional disturbance. This study (N=63) evaluates memory specificity and memory flexibility in Iranian trauma survivors with and without PTSD, relative to community controls. Trauma-exposed participants had experienced a serious road traffic accident. Results indicated that those with PTSD experienced reduced memory specificity and memory flexibility, relative to trauma-exposed and community controls. A small sample size limits the strength of conclusions, although good statistical power was obtained. Findings suggest that reduced memory flexibility may be a transdiagnostic marker of emotional disturbance and support further development of memory flexibility interventions for PTSD.
The neural basis of hot and cold cognition in depressed patients, unaffected relatives, and low-risk healthy controls: an fMRI investigation
Authors:
NORD, C.L., Halahakoon, D.C., Lally, N., Limbachya, T., Pilling ,S,. Roiser, J.P.
Reference:
-
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8516
Abstract:
Background: Modern cognitive neuropsychological models of depression posit that negatively biased emotional (“hot”) processing confers risk for depression, while preserved executive function (“cold”) cognition promotes resilience. Methods: We compared neural responses during hot and cold cognitive tasks in 99 individuals: those at familial risk for depression (N=30 unaffected first-degree relatives of depressed individuals) and those currently experiencing a major depressive episode (N=39 unmedicated depressed patients) with low-risk healthy controls (N=30). Primary analyses assessed neural activation on two functional magnetic resonance imaging tasks previously associated with depression: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) responsivity during the n-back working memory task; and amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) responsivity during incidental emotional face processing. Results: Depressed patients exhibited significantly attenuated working memory-related DLPFC activation, compared to low-risk controls and unaffected relatives; unaffected relatives did not differ from low-risk controls. We did not observe a complementary pattern during emotion processing. However, we found preliminary support that greater DLPFC activation was associated with lower amygdala response during emotion processing. Limitations: These findings require confirmation in a longitudinal study to observe each individual’s risk of developing depression; without this, we cannot identify the true risk level of the first-degree relative or low-risk control group. Conclusions: These findings have implications for understanding the neural mechanisms of risk and resilience in depression: they are consistent with the suggestion that preserved executive function might confer resilience to developing depression in first-degree relatives of depressed patients.
Increased recruitment of domain general neural networks in language processing following Intensive Language-Action Therapy – fMRI evidence from people with chronic aphasia.
Authors:
Dreyer, F., Doppelbauer, L., Arndt, V., Stahl, B., Lucchese,G., HAUK, O., Mohr,B., Pulvermüller, F.
Reference:
American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8515
Abstract:
Purpose: The present study aimed to provide novel insights into the neural correlates of language improvement following Intensive Language Action Therapy (ILAT; also known as Constraint Induced Aphasia Therapy, CIAT). Method: Sixteen people with chronic aphasia underwent clinical aphasia test assessment (Aachen Aphasia Test, AAT), as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), both administered before (T1) and after ILAT (T2). The fMRI task consisted of a passive reading paradigm presenting words as well as hashmark strings serving as visual baseline. Results: Behavioral results indicated significantly elevated scores in the AAT after therapy and fMRI results showed T2−T1 signal change in the left precuneus to be modulated by the degree of AAT score increase. Subsequent region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of this precuneus cluster confirmed a positive correlation of T2−T1 signal change and improvement on the clinical aphasia test. Similarly, the default mode network revealed a positive correlation between T2−T1 signal change and clinical language improvement. Conclusion: These results are consistent with a more efficient recruitment of domain general neural networks in language processing, including those involved in attentional control, following aphasia therapy with ILAT.
Emotional complexity across the life story: Elevated negative emodiversity and diminished positive emodiversity in sufferers of recurrent depression
Authors:
Werner-Seidler, A., HITCHCOCK, C., Hammond, E., Hill, E., Golden, A-M., Breakwell, L., Ramana, R., DALGLEISH, T.
Reference:
Journal of Affective Disorders
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8514
Abstract:
Background: Greater diversity in the experience of negative and positive emotions – emodiversity – is associated with better mental health outcomes in the general population (Quoidbach et al. 2014). However, conceptual accounts of depression suggest this might differ in clinical depression. In this study, the diversity of negative and positive emotion experiences as remembered by a recurrently depressed sample and a never-depressed control group were compared. Methods: Emodiversity was assessed using a life structure card sort task which allowed for the assessment of memory for emotional experience over the life course. Depressed (n=34) and non-depressed (n=34) participants completed the card sort task, from which emodiversity metrics were calculated for negative and positive emotion experience. Results: Depressed individuals showed recollections of enhanced emodiversity across negative emotion but reduced emodiversity across positive emotion, relative to never-depressed individuals. Limitations: This study involved a relatively small sample size. Discussion: This study indicates that greater diversity of negative emotion experience, which has been interpreted as a protective factor against depressed mood in community samples (Quoidbach et al., 2014), instead characterises the remembered experience of recurrent clinical depression. The finding that positive emodiversity is adaptive in depression suggests that therapeutic outcomes may be improved by facilitating exposure to a diverse range of positive emotions. These findings indicate that the relationship between emotion diversity and mental health is more complex than hitherto assumed.
Bipartite functional fractionation within the default network supports disparate forms of internally oriented cognition
Authors:
CHIOU, R., LAMBON RALPH, M., HUMPHREYS, G.
Reference:
Cerebral Cortex
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8513
Abstract:
Our understanding about the functionality of the brain’s default network (DN) has significantly evolved over the past decade. Whereas traditional views define this network based on its suspension/disengagement during task-oriented behaviour, contemporary accounts have characterised various situations wherein the DN actively contributes to task performance. However, it is unclear how different task-contexts drive componential regions of the DN to coalesce into a unitary network and fractionate into different sub-networks. Here we report a compendium of evidence that provides answers to these questions. Across multiple analyses, we found a striking dyadic structure within the DN in terms of the profiles of task-triggered fMRI response and effective connectivity, significantly extending beyond previous inferences based on meta-analysis and resting-state activities. In this dichotomy, one subset of DN regions prefers mental activities interfacing with perceptible events, while the other subset prefers activities detached from perceptible events. While both show a common ‘aversion’ to sensory-motoric events, their differential preferences manifest a subdivision that sheds light upon the taxonomy of the brain’s memory systems. This dichotomy is consistent with proposals of a macro-scale gradational structure spanning across the cerebrum. This gradient increases its representational complexity, from primitive sensory-motoric processing, through lexical-semantic representations, to elaborated self-generated thoughts.
Why your mind is like a shark: Testing the idea of mutualism
Authors:
KIEVIT, R.A., SIMPSON-KENT, I.L., and FUHRMANN, D.,
Reference:
Frontiers for Young Minds
Year of publication:
In Press
CBU number:
8512
Abstract:
We want to understand how children get so much better at certain cognitive abilities like reading, writing, and problem solving as they get older. To better understand this, we followed hundreds of children across a period of years, to see how abilities like problem solving and vocabulary changed over time. We found that having good vocabulary to start with made children’s problem-solving development go more quickly. It also worked the other way around: being better at problem solving meant children were quicker to learn new words. In other words, each cognitive ability may help other abilities develop. This idea is called mutualism. We were very excited by this discovery, because it can help us understand how children become better even at things they never practice directly, and how teachers can better help children who find certain school topics more challenging.
The complex neurobiology of resilient functioning after childhood maltreatment
Authors:
Ioannidis, K., Askelund, A.D., KIEVIT, R.A. and van Harmelen, A-L.
Reference:
BMC Medicine, 18(1):32
Year of publication:
2020
CBU number:
8511
Abstract:
Background: Childhood maltreatment has been associated with significant impairment in social, emotional and behavioural functioning later in life. Nevertheless, some individuals who have experienced childhood maltreatment function better than expected given their circumstances. Main body: Here, we provide an integrated understanding of the complex, interrelated mechanisms that facilitate such individual resilient functioning after childhood maltreatment. We aim to show that resilient functioning is not facilitated by any single ‘resilience biomarker’. Rather, resilient functioning after childhood maltreatment is a product of complex processes and influences across multiple levels, ranging from ‘bottom-up’ polygenetic influences, to ‘top-down’ supportive social influences. We highlight the complex nature of resilient functioning and suggest how future studies could embrace a complexity theory approach and investigate multiple levels of biological organisation and their temporal dynamics in a longitudinal or prospective manner. This would involve using methods and tools that allow the characterisation of resilient functioning trajectories, attractor states and multidimensional/multilevel assessments of functioning. Such an approach necessitates large, longitudinal studies on the neurobiological mechanisms of resilient functioning after childhood maltreatment that cut across and integrate multiple levels of explanation (i.e. genetics, endocrine and immune systems, brain structure and function, cognition and environmental factors) and their temporal interconnections. Conclusion: We conclude that a turn towards complexity is likely to foster collaboration and integration across fields. It is a promising avenue which may guide future studies aimed to promote resilience in those who have experienced childhood maltreatment. Keywords: Childhood maltreatment, Abuse, Neglect, Neurobiology, Resilience, Psychopathology, Genetics, Neuroendocrine, Inflammation, Brain structure, Brain function
URL:
Noradrenergic-dependent functions are associated with age-related locus coeruleus signal intensity differences
Authors:
Liu, K.Y., KIEVIT, R.A., Tsvetanov, K.A., Betts, M.J., Düzel, E., Rowe, J.B., Cam-CAN*, Howard, R. & Hämmerer, D.
Reference:
Nature Communications, 11(1):1712
Year of publication:
2020
CBU number:
8510
Abstract:
The locus coeruleus (LC), the origin of noradrenergic modulation of cognitive and behavioral function, may play an important role healthy ageing and in neurodegenerative conditions. We investigated the functional significance of age-related differences in mean normalized LC signal intensity values (LC-CR) in magnetization-transfer (MT) images from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience (Cam-CAN) cohort - an open-access, population-based dataset. Using structural equation modelling, we tested the pre-registered hypothesis that putatively noradrenergic (NA)-dependent functions would be more strongly associated with LC-CR in older versus younger adults. A unidimensional model (within which LC-CR related to a single factor representing all cognitive and behavioral measures) was a better fit with the data than the a priori two-factor model (within which LC-CR related to separate NAdependent and NA-independent factors). Our findings support the concept that age-related reduction of LC structural integrity is associated with impaired cognitive and behavioral function.
URL:
Data available, click to request


genesis();