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Social media are a pervasive component of young people’s everyday life. Despite the widespread public concern around their potential negative impact on youth’s mental health, empirical evidence is sparse. Specifically, their association with and effect on different mental health conditions is still an open question. In my research, I address this question in three steps. Firstly, I identify existing gaps in the scientific literature by systematically reviewing and meta-analysing studies on the topic. Secondly, I employ data from large-scale national surveys to compare the association between social media use and mental health for young people affected by different clinical conditions (e.g., anxiety, depression, eating disorders). Lastly, I perform early developmental work to co-produce guidelines with young people, teachers and parents to identify therapeutic targets for different mental health conditions. Overall, my goal is to map the complex interplay between digital technologies and youth’s mental health to improve knowledge for clinical research, practice, education, and policy.