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The Neuroscience Of Language: On Brain Circuits Of Words and Serial Order
Cambridge University Press: Cambridge
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Table of contents 0. Foreword 1. A guide to the book 1.1 Structure and function of the book 1.2 Paths through the book 1.3 Chapter overview 2. Neuronal structure and function 2.1 Neuronal structure 2.1.1 Anatomy of a nerve cell 2.1.2 Basics about the cortex 2.1.3 Internal wiring of the cortex 2.2 Neuronal function and learning 2.3 Principles and implications 2.4 Functional webs in the cortex 2.4.1 Why should numerous neurons cooperate? 2.4.2 The need for connecting neurons in distant cortical areas 2.5 Defining functional webs 2.6 Evidence for functional webs 2.7 A view on cortical function 2.8 Temporal dynamics in functional webs: ignition and reverberation 3. From aphasia research to neuroimaging 3.1 Aphasiology 3.2 Laterality of language 3.3 Neuroimaging of language 4. Words in the brain 4.1 Phonological webs 4.2 Word webs 4.3 Summary and conclusions Excursus E1: Explaining neuropsychological double dissociations E1.1 Functional changes in a lesioned network: the non-linear deterioration of performance with growing lesion size E1.2 Brocaís vs. Wernickeís aphasia 5. Regulation, overlap, and web tails 5.1 Regulation of cortical activity 5.1.1 The over-activation problem in auto-associative memories 5.1.2 Coincidence vs. correlation 5.1.3 Sparse coding 5.1.4 A cybernetic model of feedback regulation of cortical activity 5.1.5 Striatal regulation of cortical activity 5.1.6 Summary 5.2 Overlapping representations 5.2.1 Homophones and form-related words 5.2.2 Synonyms 5.2.3 Prototypes and family resemblance 5.3 Web tails 5.3.1 Affective and emotional meaning 5.3.2 Linking orthographical, to phonological and meaning related information 5.4 Summary 6. Neural algorithms and neural networks 6.1 McCulloch and Pittsí logical calculus as a starting point 6.2 Symbolic connectionist models of language 6.3 Distributed connectionist models of language 6.4 Hot topics in neural network research on language 6.4.1 Word category deficits 6.4.2 The development of rules in the brain 7. Basic syntax 7.1 Rewriting rules 7.2 Center-embedding 7.3 Discontinuous constituents and distributed words 7.4 Defining word categories in terms of complements: dependency syntax 7.5 Syntactic trees 7.6 Questions for a neuronal grammar 8. Serial order mechanisms I: Synfire chains 8.1 Neurophysiological evidence and neuronal models 8.2 A putative basis of phonological processing 8.3 Can synfire chains realize grammar? 8.4 Functional webs composed of synfire chains 8.5 Summary 9. Serial order mechanisms II: Sequence detectors 9.1 Movement detection 9.2 Sequence detectors for word strings 9.3 Sequence detectors and syntactic structure 10. Neuronal grammar 10.1 The story so far 10.2 Neuronal sets 10.3 Threshold control 10.4 Sequence detection in networks of neuronal sets 10.5 Activity dynamics of sequence detection 10.6 Lexical categories represented in neuronal sets 10.6.1 Why lexical categories? 10.6.2 Lexical ambiguity 10.6.3 Lexical categories as sets of sequence sets 10.6.4 Neuronal requirements of a grammar machine 10.6.5 Lexical disambiguation by sequence sets 10.7 Summary: Principles of neuronal grammar Excursus E2: Basic bits of neuronal grammar E2.1 Examples, algorithms and networks E2.2 Grammar circuits at work E2.2.1 Simulation 1: acceptance of a congruent string E2.2.2 Simulation 2: processing of an incongruent string E2.2.3 Simulation 3: processing of a partly congruent string Excursus E3: A web response to a sentence E3.1 The grammar algorithm and network E2.2 Sentence processing in syntactic circuits E3.2.1 Global characteristics E3.2.2 Specific features E3.3 Discussion of the implementation and simulation 11. Neuronal grammar and algorithms 11.1 Regular associations, associative rules 11.2 A formalism for grammar networks 11.3 Some differences between abstract and neuronal grammar 11.4 Summary 12. Refining neuronal grammar 12.1 Complements and adjuncts 12.2 Multiple activity states of a neuronal set 12.2.1 The concept of multiple reverberation 12.2.2 Some revised principles of neuronal grammar 12.3 Multiple center-embedding 12.4 Summary, open questions, and outlook Excursus E4: Multiple reverberation for resolving lexical ambiguity Excursus E5: Multiple reverberations and multiple center embeddings 13. Neurophysiology of syntax 13.1 On making predictions 13.2 Neuronal grammar and syntax-related brain potentials 14. Linguistics and the brain 14.1 Why are linguistic theories abstract? 14.2. How may linguistic theory profit from a brain basis?