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The primacy model: a new model of immediate serial recall
PAGE, M.P.A. & NORRIS, D.
Psychological Review, 105 (4), 761-781, 1998.
Year of publication:
This paper presents a new model of immediate serial recall: the primacy model. The primacy model stores order information by assuming that the strength of activation of successive list items decreases across list position to form a primacy gradient. Ordered recall is supported by a repeated cycle of operations involving a noisy choice of the most active item followed by suppression of the chosen item. Word-length and list-length effects are attributed to a decay process that occurs both during input, when effective rehearsal is prevented, and during output. The phonological similarity effect is attributed to a second stage of processing at which phonological confusions occur. The primacy model produces accurate simulations of the effects of word-length, list-length and phonological similarity.